Jewish Liberal Newspaper, June 3, 1921


Philipp Bloch.

It is with admiration and honor that we wish a veteran of reform Judaism congratulations on the completion of his 80th year. Philipp Bloch, born on May 30, 1841, is a child of the German East and has lived his entire live in the German East except for a short stint as School Director in Munich. He spent his student years in Breslau. From 1871 to 1920, so almost a half century, he was the rabbi of the Brüdergemeinde in Posen. Here he found a good religious understanding and  knowledge of the reform tradition, paired with modern education and a modern attitude. Bloch was eminently suited to care for and foster these traditions. During his studies in Breslau he met Geiger who was at the height of his work. He himself was able to achieve so much at his post through his deep scholarliness, his comprehensive general education, his lively, effervescent spirit and the deep inner religiosity of his personality. The inner strength of the congregation and its influence grew significantly during the Bloch era. During his appointment the Posener Brüdergemeinde was taken over by the Synagogal Congregation and its temple became the congregations temple with Professor Bloch as the lead rabbi.

Bloch’s name has been mentioned among the leading reform Jewish theologians for decades. During his student days he found friendship and a common perspective with Vogelstein (Stettin), with whom he founded the Association of Liberal Rabbis of Germany [Vereinigung liberaler Rabbiner Deutschlands]. Since Vogelstein’s death he has lead the organization for decades and now, with his retirement from this position, he has been named Director Emeritus. He has headed the Association’s rabbinical examination committee for years.

The past years since the collapse [Zusammenbruch] have been brought him difficulties. The political situation threatened the existence of his congregation and his life’s work. He himself held out in his beloved homeland as long as he could until the intolerable circumstances of autumn, 1920 forced him to retire and move to Berlin.

We wish the highly estimable man who has enriched Jewish knowledge through countless historical and religious philosophical works a peaceful retirement spent in spiritual renewal and robust health with undisturbed familial happiness.

Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization, Breslau
Monday, June 5th 1821, 8 pm:
Social Get-to-gether
in the South Park.
See the program of summer activities on the last page.

Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization, Berlin
Sunday, 5th of June, 1921
Morning Outing to Wannsee, Potsdam.
Meet at 9 o’clock at the commuter rail platform at the
Zoological Garden train station with a ticket to Wannsee.
Cruise with the Potsdam youth group.
Tuesday, 7th of June, 1921:
Get-together 8 o’clock, Schloß Wannsee, at the Beelitzhof
(Train station Nikolassee)


Members’ Meeting of the Union of Liberal Rabbis of Germany,
May 17th 1921 at Frankfurt a. M.

On Tuesday, May 17th, the Union of Liberal Rabbis of Germany met in the Frankfurt Lodge.  Of the Union’s 85 members, the following 46 rabbis attended: [See graphic below.]

The head of the union, Bloch (Posen), did not attend due to his advanced age, so the meeting was opened by Seligmann (Frankfurt). Following his proposal, Vogelstein will be the acting leader of the meeting, Goldmann the secretary, Appel and Steinhal will lead the protocol, Salzberger and Kronheim (Bielefeld) will serve as treasurers. A committee was formed to prepare for the election to choose new leadership. Appointed to the committee are Dienemann, Jacob and and Norden.

Following these proceedings, the Counselor Dr. Blau greeted the rabbis on behalf of the Frankfurt Jewish congregation, the Medical Counselor D. Ettlinger on behalf of the Free-thinking Association for Jewish Congregational Life, Dr. Erwin Seligmann on behalf of the Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization, and Dr. Eduard Strauß on behalf of the Frankfurt and Hermann Cohen lodges.

The meeting’s leader thanked all the speakers for their heartfelt words and then delivered a report spanning from 1912 to 1921. He commemorated the members who had passed on, especially Maybaum. Guttmann, Guttmann, Appel and Rülf for which the assembly stood. He thanked the rabbis  who served as military chaplains for their sacrifice and blessed service during the war and proposed naming the current leader [Philipp Bloch] as the union’s leader emeritus in honor of his 80th birthday which would be at the end of the month. The assembly enthusiastically and unanimously agreed. A telegram with news of this election will be sent to Bloch in Berlin. Then the meeting’s leader went on to illustrate in detail the motives, fate, and prospect of the direction of a program for liberal Judaism.

This was followed by the lectures and reports.

Dienemann (Offenbach) presented a lecture on the “Meaning of the Irrational for Liberal Judaism” that was very deep and thoughtful. He described the concept of the irrational as that part of our soul that presumes itself to be a given, that presents itself apart from any thought process and sees itself as holding sway regardless of choices. Dienemann south to show how this irrational is a deciding characteristic of our times, opposes the last questions, not because of rational thought and scientific processing, but because of primitive drives and the unexplainable.

… [translation is still being worked on]


Aus dem Reich.

Departures from Judaism

The “Berliner Tageblatt” writes in an overview of the departures from the various Jewish confessions the following:

Before the war the number of people declaring themselves to not be Jewish was regularly reported Berlin’s Jewish congregations. Various difficulties have prevented the continued preparation of perfect statistics. In Berlin where some 180,000 Jews lived: in 210 237 left Judaism, in 1912 228, in 1913 180 and in 1917 some 150. Even here, at the start of the revolution, the wave of departures was noticeable. It lasted from about the beginning of 1919 to the mid-year. During this time, the number of departures was at least twice as much as during the pre-war years. The wave ebbed at the end of 1919 but as we were told by an informed source, the current number of these departures a third greater than before the war. Connected with this movement of departures is the fact that fewer study theology as before the war. Even so there is no shortage of religious because many religious have emigrated from the occupied areas and are waiting for assignments. – As was emphasized, the tax burden for many employed Jews, who earn relatively little, is the reason for their declaration of departure.

Lyck (East Prussia). [now Elk, Poland] The police administration published the following announcement in the “Lycker Zeitung”:

The agitation against our Jewish citizens perpetrated by certain circles has for a while now taken a form that must be decisively condemned. The various city administrations are determined to bring all means to bear against this “Unfug” Through this announcement we warn against the continuation of these hetzenden activities and ask the citizenry in the spirit of the great People’s Voe, in which the Israelite citizens of Masur were true to the Fatherland and helped us gai the glorious victory of German identity in order to preserve peace. Should the actions against Jews continue despite this warning, we will punish especially those who hang and distribute pamphlets. In consideration of our citizenry, we expect that we will not have to resort to such punishments.

Hamburg. From the Segeberg Children’s Home. On the 22 of the previous month [May] the Segeberg Children’s Home celebrated the tenth anniversary of its founding. Countless foreign and local supporters were present among the crowd of children and board members of the Israelite humanitarian Womens Association which founded and maintains the home to celebrate the occasion. Among the attendees, one noticed among others Baron van Beverrode, the Dutch Consul in Hamburg Flaes, Mayor Stolten, State Minister Dr. Köster and president of the board of the railway Schneider (Altona).

Miss Sidonie Werner, the director of the Home thanked all supporters, doors, and workers after providing a short retrospective of the institution’s development. After her spoke Mayor Stolten on behalf of the city senate, Consul Flaes and Rabbi Dr. Leimdörfer, who had dedicated the home ten years ago.



Representatives‘ Meeting, May 27, 1921.

[Translator’s note: The following is not an exact translation, but is more than a synopsis.]

Because the congregation’s representatives had not met for 2 months, there were 26 items to consider, many of which concerned the cemeteries, namely deciding to allow 3 burials in one plot and improving the drainage and the building at Antonienstraße 6 and funding more telephone connections.  Members of the charitable aid committee were elected. Another important topic was religious instruction which received more funds to cover the reorganization of instruction for the upper classes. Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein and Counselor Hirschberg were able to align the curriculum for these upper classes with that of the province’s. There was a long debate about paying for new library books. Apparently, many books had been missing. These were found to be in the hands of scholars who used them for their research and many requests for their return had gone unheeded. The debate included additional funds to cover paying library aids (all women) for overtime. The contribution to the Jewish “Kurhospital” [modern equivalent would be “rehab”] in Warmbrunn [now Cieplice Slaskie Zdroja, PL] was increased from 400 to 600 marks. The budget of the M. S. Leipzig Foundation was reviewed. The regional traveling library received some funding. In the future the funds of the Reander Mueller Foundation will go to support support Jewish psychological patients and to cover the significant costs of supplying matzah for the recent Passover. The representatives then went into a private session during which it was decided to use congregation funds for a grave memorial for the deceased Rabbi Dr. Rosenthal.

For Your Consideration.

Forest Sanitorium Obernigk

The German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation Obernigl chapter published in the May 4th issue of the “Boten aus den Kreisen Trebnitz, Militsch-Trachtenberg, Wohlau, Anzeiger für Bad Obernigk” an announcement that was signed by Dr. Fritz Kontny as its leader. Dr. Kontny invites all who want to join the Protection and Defiance Federation to  come to him at the Waldsanitorium Obernigk.

This fact deserves to be noted because Dr. Kontny through his activity as the leader of the defaming and agitating Protection and Defiance Federation, makes it quite clear that he does value Jewish guests in his Sanitorium.

The German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation’s list of businesses. The Otto Kowatsch & Co., producers of lighting fixtures and metalwork, Breslau 5, 6-8 Reydigerstraße reports that it distances itself completely from any antisemitic activities and has repeatedly asked the German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation to take them off the list.

Cabaret Kaiserkrone. The June program is very interesting. The enormously fat Otto Mücke [gnat] (paradox!), the gorgeous Elsa Felsen and the singers Herrmann Torf and Albrecht Hoffmeister, and the Krönlein-Tima duet will deliver the best entertainment. Take note especially of the dancer Dolly Gerd who performs her folk dances with a good technique, musicality, and authenticity. It’s truly worthwhile to see the June program.

The living maze, which will be set up on the fairgrounds of the Breslau Luna Park in Morgenau delights all visitors with its labyrinthian hedges. Neo-Impressionist statues, large concave and convex mirrors and a friendly fountain in the middle of the maze add an artistic aspect and increase the pleasure of visitors to this magical garden setting. It’s far better than the maze that was set up in the Scheitniger Park in previous years.

[Schedule of services that lists the Confirmations at the Old Synagogue, Saturday, June 4: Ernst Günther Karpe (Father Siegmund K., Schuhbrücke, 19/21 and Albert Loewy (Father Leo L., Neue
Graupenstraße 11] At the New Synagogue, Saturday, June 4: Gerhard Glaser
(Father Leo G., Augustastraße 133).

The Gotthelf Foundation is giving scholarships to Jewish students of Medicine or Law who had been born in the provinces of Silesia or Posen. Applications accompanied by a birth certificate and grades/recommendations will be accepted until June 20th of this year.
The Board of the Synagogue’s Congregation.

The Foundations of Jakob and Charlotte Krebs, City Councilor Fedor and Charlotte Pringsheim, Biller Sina and the Lady von Pilot will assist deserving local Jewish brides with their trousseaus. Applications accepted until the first of September.

It is a proud duty of all Jewish fellow citizens [female] to belong to the Israelite aid to the sick and Funerary Society (Chewra kadischa) and so support the Israelite Hospital which is in dire need thanks to the war and its economic consequences.

Non-members of the Chewra Kadischa must pay double the burial fee in case of their death and the death of their dependents.

Membership applications can be made at the office of the Israelite Hospital, Hohenzollernstr. 96 (Tel. ring 6716-18)

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, May 27, 1921

p. 1

National German Jews and the Middle Ranks.

by Dr. Max Naumann (Berlin)

[Translation] In Issue 14, March 4 of this publication in the article “On the National German Jews”, the lawyer Erich Spitz opposed Dr. Naumann‘s writing and movement. In order to further clarify this topic, we invited Dr. Naumann to respond. Technical problems caused us to delay publishing his essay. The delay is in no way an indication of our position.

Synopsis: In his March 4th article, Erich Spitz apparently incorrectly ascribed positions to Dr. Naumann and his movement. The first correction regards the membership. All Jewish Germans who feel that their German identity, their feeling of German nationality, is integral to them regardless of their particular religious or political associations. To the point Spitz makes of how they exclude certain groups, Nauman observes that radical leftists are typically anti-nationalist and wouldn’t want to belong to their organization. Very religious Jews often see their identity as being unconstrained by national borders or regional groupings, so they also would not be interested in joining an organization for Jews who identify with the German nation. But these groups are not excluded from membership. Dr. Naumann vehemently disagrees with Spitz when he associates the feeling of German national identity with nationalism. Rather, Dr. Naumann claims that this national feeling is an individualistic experience filtered through ancestry, religious sensitivity, education, class, profession, economic status, and many other factors. “You have it or you don’t.” And it’s already present in the child’s soul, when they make their first cry. On this topic he concludes that Spitz’s glasses through which he perceives the world are colored differently. For him his Judaism affected the color more and for Dr. Naumann’s were more affected by his Germanness. Dr. Naumann believes that the Jew who primarily identifies as German “will more quickly and surely reach the place where every German belongs, the place where non-Jews and Jews, unified by love of the German Fatherland, will work hand-in-hand to rebuild Germany.”

[Front page announcements from the Jewish Liberal Youth Orgnanization)

Jewish Liberal Youth Organization, Breslau
Sunday, 29th of May, 1921 River cruise to Maltsch (Leubus) with the Liegnitzer youth group.
Meet at 5:45 am at the main train station.
Steamship cruise from Maltsch to Leubus (now Malczyce and Lubiąż, PL).
We’ll be cooking lunch and for the coffee break so bring your mess kit, cutlery, and mug. Those that can sing, bring your voices! The outing will take place regardless of weather. Ludwig Freund. Phone R.8112.
Tuesday, 29th of May, 1921, 8 pm:
Social get-together in Scheitnig (at the Schweizerei). See the Summer Program announcement.
Jewish Liberal Youth Organization, Berlin
Sunday, 5th of June, 1921 Morning outing to Wannsee, Potsdam.
Meet at 9 o’clock at the commuter rail platform at the Zoological Garden train station with a ticket to Wannsee. Cruise with the Potsdam youth group.


The Central Organization and the League of National German Jews.

Synopsis: Eugen Freund has sent a letter to the newspaper which Felix Hirschberg, as the head of the Breslau chapter of Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith feels compelled to respond to. He takes issue with the question of membership in the League of National German Jews, citing that the bylaws changed only recently to clarify that the members must be of Jewish descent. To refute the claim that members can be of any party affiliation, Hirschberg quotes Naumann as saying that members should have the same political identity as he, Naumann, has. Finally, Hirschberg contests the claim that the League is not an enemy of the Central Organization and points to the example of how divided they are over the situation of the Eastern European Jews. The League says it’s a German problem and the Central Organization maintains that it’s a Jewish problem. He concludes by observing how regrettable it is that the Jewish community is debating such issues when it is being threatened by dangers from the outside.

Aus dem Reich.

Frankfurt a. M. From the German Liberal Jewry Association. On the Monday after Pentecost a meeting of the leadership was attended by many local groups. 21 Reform Rabbis participated. A detailed report is forthcoming. The following day a meeting of the Association of German Reform Rabbis took place.

Berlin. The Central Organization and the League of National German Jews. The exact wording of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith’s position on the League of National German Jews founded by Dr. Naumann, which was decided during a meeting of the leadership committee on April 10 is as follows:

The Central Organization warns German Jews against joining the Naumann movement. It is dangerous and will cause confusion internally and externally. This movement is unnecessary because the German ideals have always been incontrovertibly represented by the Central Organization.

Berlin. Voting Rights of Foreigners. In a memorandum to the President of the Rhine province, the Prussian Ministry of the Interior declined to consider requests made by synagogues to change the congregational voting rights of foreigners as stated in the Jewish Law of 1847.  He added: “The voting rights of synagogue congregations will be modernized by a new law that is currently being developed.”

Berlin. Announcing a Prize from the S. Maybaum Foundation. Professor Bloch, the head of the Association of Reform Rabbis of Germany, announced the prize to be awarded to a historical presentation and critical analysis of how German Synagogues undertook to make the traditional reading of the Torah and the Prophets more effective and impactful. Paragraph 3 of the announcement only works that are scientific, that is, supported by the sources of the Religious Law or by references to previous works on the history of religion. Candidates for the prize must be rabbis or have passed the rabbinical exams and are awaiting assignments as rabbis. The submissions must be written in German. According to paragraph 4, the publisher retains the ownership of the published work. This time the prize is 700 Marks. Submissions must be sent by November 18, 1922 to Dr. Cäsar Seligman, Rabbi in Frankfurt a. M., Friedrichstraße 29. Papers are to be submitted anonymously with an identifying word or phrase which is then to be sent in a separate, sealed envelope containing the identity of the writer.

A description of the modes in which the Torah is read during services in the important German congregations is desired, but not required.

Allenstein. A general session of the league of East Prussian synagogue congregations took place on May 5 with the recent members of the West Prussian area included. The focus of discussions was the question of religious education introduced by lectures by Rabbi Dr. Lewin, Königsberg “School and Home,” and Rabbi Dr. Apt, Allenstein “Building and expanding Jewish religious education in East Prussia.” City Counselor, Eichelbaum from Insterburg, was re-elected as head of the organization by a large majority.

Kassel.  The Association of neutral Jewish Youth Organizations of Germany which held a leadership conference here on Pentecost, declared a resolution that Palestine must not be treated along political lines. Rather, in Palestine there must rise a homeland grounded in the religion of our fathers for all Jews who have been uprooted from their homelands.And from which shall flow religious and intellectual impulses to Judaism and the whole world. 

Stuttgart. [Editor’s note: This segment uses Christian terms for Jewish institutions and the authors use the term “Israelite” instead of “Jewish.”}

The new Israelite church constitution in Wuerttemberg. On the 23rd of this month the conference of Israelite congregations in the state of Wuerttemberg met to define a new constitution required by the recent separation of church and state. Attending were 16 representatives with voting rights plus 2 who had been elected by rabbis or teachers. 

The current constitution is largely as follows: Every Israelite belongs to the Israelite church where they reside, and if there isn’t one, then they belong to the nearest one. The congregations are divided into 8 areas and are administered by councils to whom the rabbis are accountable. These councils are led by the Israelite church’s state council whose head is part of the religious ministry and has its own state congress secretarial position. […] These are government employees, now hired by the government, previously hired by the king. {…] The new constitution has few changes but does away with the Rabbis’ dependence on the church councils and introduces the right of women to vote. 

[Editor’s note: The ellipses indicate passages that describe in detail the hierarchy of congregational and state councils, their makeup, whether they are appointed or elected.]


A novelle by Bidsche Hohnsalz (Zehlendorf)

Luckily, there are not many people that had suffered such an unhappy youth as he. His father was an angry, immeasurably tyrannical and debauched man who set himself to be a miserable exception to the many Jews living according to a strong family ethos. His mother was a small, miserable, weak, and sickly woman who had never loved her husband, and was in no way the right partner for him.

When he was conceived he received all the suffering and battles his mother had withstood; and the sadness of his childhood, the monotone, dark melody of his soul became the theme of his entire being. It was as though his face bore the traces of all the suffering endured by Jews for many centuries.

The only child born after him was mentally and physically slow, vegetated as an imbecile—a terrible accusation toward his parents.

He grew up without love; no one had shown him any tenderness, no one had ever cared about him.

From his mother he inherited the inclination to being alone, and the constant talking to himself.

Women remained to him a closed secret. There did burn in him a longing and greedy flames reached after the unknown, the deepest things that a young can experience, toward the locked gateway behind which he thought happiness lay.

When on May evenings he saw the girls in white dresses flirtatiously hanging on the arm of their loved one, he felt like a beggar on the side of the road.

He was not cut out for life. His soul didn’t have a crab shell. He was unremittingly exposed to the intensity of outsized emotions and longings, and he had become tired and troubled by it all.

As a student he met a young female chemist who was as good as engaged to a distant relative of his named Felix. When he saw this young girl for the first time, he felt as though he were struck by lightning; He was affected as never before in his life and he knew that he would never be able to forget her.

Wherever he was, in all his travels, during every activity, his inner eyes beheld the image of this girl which tortured him and made him seem even more of a dreamer and always lost in thought.

Longing!… Longing!…The life of this weakly man who could barely justify his existence was a vessel for the world that this word encompassed. – Oh! There are such great, wonderful and meaningful words like this one that become as worn down and common as an old coin through such overuse in language.

She was a delicate, feminine and absolutely lovely creature with a gentle and still a bit cheeky childlike face framed by a crown of thick dark brown hair—a fine, unusual, unforgettable beauty in her own way….

Her character contrasted with her delicate shape in an odd way—Nature had made a charming joke, which was however still bitterly and terribly ironic for within the extraordinarily beautiful, elflike form, there was a very confident, strong-willed, imperious, combative character that was completely unsentimental, clear, col and focused which must have struck his dreamy and awkward self as odd. She had of course quickly realized what kind of impression she had made on him and viewed him with a half amused, half intentional ambivalence.

It never came to any kind of external action for he was shy and avoided mentioning that which would most satisfy him.

He knew that she would always be unapproachable for him, and anyway, she loved another—at least as much as her spare and aloof nature allowed her feelings—and she was promised to another even though she in no way suited him, or had any affection for him, she did understand his unusual, unimpressive manner.

How often did he say to himself: The greatest punishment were to have my foolish wishes fulfilled!

How often did he think about the impossible prospects for his longing! All of this helped him little. He could not tear his thoughts away from her. It was exactly her confident, energetic character that made the deepest impression on him, the perpetual dreamer…. (to be continued.)

p. 3

[“Aus dem Reich” continuation]

Munich.  The state government of Bavaria has resolved to counter the recent growth of Antisemitism. It instructed the police to pay close attention to antisemitic movements and to take measures against their actions. Everything will be done to introduce severe punishments to dissuade them. 

Liegnitz. [Legnica, PL] Association of Independent Jewish Craftsmen, Liegnitz chapter. Its first meeting took place on the 8th of this month. The introductory lecture was held by W. Marcus (Berlin), the national Association’s head. In attendance were a representative of the Breslau chapter and the Liegnitz Rabbi, Dr. Peritz. 36 craftsmen joined immediately. 

Aus dem Ausland. 

Vienna. Synopsis: A short notice of the death of Alfred Fried, 1911 Nobel Peace Prize winner for his pacifistic efforts. 

Athens. As recently reported by us on the fairy tale of rituatlistic murder in Thessalonica, the Prime Minister of Greece, Gounaris, in response to a parliamentary request for an explanation, stated that this incident was without significance and was quickly put an end to by the police. [He went on to say that ] this fable that caused the incident is a despicable slander against a community that contributes so much to culture. The slander that Jews draw blood from Christian children brings forth indignation in the consciences of every decent human being. “We know the Israelites to be loyal and hard-working citizens.” Their gentle, peaceful, and calm character completely refutes the cruelty of which they are suspected. If some citizens, blinded by prejudice, were to have an attitude toward Jews that stands in contrast to the position of the majority of their fellow citizens, they will have to reckon with the full power of the state and suffer the consequences of strictest justice. 

[Editor’s note: The largest Jewish (Sephardic) community lived on Thessalonica, which was annexed by Greece in 1913, which underscores the significance of this story. See the Wikipedia article on Antisemitism in Greece: 

Aus der Presse. 

An editorial from the “Israelitisches Familienblatt”on the founding of the Zionist organization, Binjan Haarez, labels it as a separationist movement. 

The “Frankfurter Zeitung” reports on the suffering of Ukrainian Jews and an appeal for aid in the Austrian newspapers. During the government changes, pogroms had again taken place. Synopsis: The pogroms of spring and summer 1919, some of the most violent attacks in the history of the world, had destroyed 568 communities and killed 138,000 Jews, as reported by the 1920 Jewish World Relief Conference in Carlsbad. Details of the massacres follow. Since the conference, another 150 settlements have been destroyed by the forces of General Balachowicz, thousands murdered, and tens of thousands forced to flee to neighboring countries. 


The “Frankfurter Zeitung” reports an antisemitic attack in Giessen committed by three students from the local university. A man was beaten to unconciousness. One of the attackers was apprehended. The victim turned out to be a Christian, but his attackers assumed that because he was carrying two suitcases he was a Jewish businessman. It behooves the university’s administration to fight against the spirit that led to such an action ex officio to preserve its academic reputation. 

Local Events.

Representatives‘ Meeting. On Sunday, the 29th of this month at 10:30 a.m. the representatives will meet at the conference hall at Wallstrasse 9. The meeting has a rich agenda.

Breslau Jewish Women’s League. The League met on the 24th of this month at the Lessing Lodge. Mrs. Guttmann [wife of Professor Guttmann] greeted the many attendants and the special guest from Berlin, Henriette May. She mentioned the growing achievements of the local Breslau chapter. Then followed reports from the leaders of the individual committees: Mrs. Ollendorff spoke about the effectiveness of the counseling service; Mrs. Cohn about the children’s home; Mrs. Grete Bial bout the girls’ club, Mrs. Engel reported on the treasury.

Then Mrs. May took the stage and gave a compelling recounting of the proceedings of the Carlsbad World Congress and gave her attentive listeners new perspectives on the children’s aid and provided little known details about this great aid campaign. Mrs. May fully deserved the eager applause and thanks she received. Mrs. Ollendorf contributed more information about the children’s aid work. The meeting closed with remarks from Mrs. Regina Neiβer in which she again thanked Mrs. May most sincerely and emphasized that Jewish women joyfully, proudly, and rightfully call themselves German women of Jewish faith. They should take to heart and put into action the words of the great German man, the great friend of people and children, Friedrich Fröbel, “Come, let our children live!” just as Jewish women want their children to live.”

Attention! A thoroughly reliable source reported to us that on the morning of May 16 of this year, in a compartment on the Breslau-Oels train, the businessman Paul Buchwald, owner of an imported fruit store at 62 Kaiser-Wilhelmstrasse, ranted about Jews in an especially hateful manner and called for their remoal from Germany. We publish this with a observation that Mr. Buchwald certainly feels the same way about his customers and clearly does not value Jewish business.

The straw hat manufacturer Freund & Krebs at 30 Karlstrasse has added service for reshaping men’s felt hats. Please bring your felt hats for reshaping as soon as possible to avoid the Fall rush. Bring hats directly to the factory on Karlstrasse as orders will not be accepted from our outlets or independent shops.

Family Announcements.

Engagements: Charlotte Joßmann, Breslau, with Wilhelm Rosenbaum, Berlin-Reinickendorf-West; Paula Fischel with Walter Bayer, Breslau; Marie Eisner with Siegfried Falk, Berlin.

Marriages: Arthur Weinstock with Charlotte Marcus, Breslau; Arthur Hirschel with Erna Deucht, Breslay, Siegfried Kochmann with Edith Weißmann, Breslau; Alex Deckro with Lydia Warschauer, Breslau, Josef Scheye with Erna Chonke, Breslau.

Births: Son: Max Fröhlich and Magda, nee Reichmann, Breslau; Georg Brinnitzer and Clara, nee Wiener, Oppeln; Theodor Prinz and Lucte, nee Böhm, Breslau; Dr. Bruno Strauß and Dr. Bertha Badt-Strauß, Berlin; Erich Böhm and Käte, nee Ebstein, Rattbor; Max Roth and wife, Breslau; Dago Albert Liebermann and Johanna, nee Lewy, Breslau; Wilhelm Ludwig Schlesinger and Resi, nee Gerstel, Breslau; Walter Roth and Käthe, nee Leschnitzer, Breslau.

Daughter: Ernst Mohr and Bertha, nee Scheyer, Breslau; Dr. Lazarus Jutkowski and Grete, nee Hauptmann, Militsch.

Deaths: Heiman Glaser: Hermann Berger, Breslau; Georg Matheus, Breslau; Isidor Goldschmidt, Neustadt Upper Silesia; Sophie Meyer, nee Schwerin, Breslau; Julius Moses, Breslau; Markus Schinder, Breslau.


[Editor’s note: I haven’t translated anything from the advertisements section of the newspaper, but in this issue, it included a description of the summer youth program, its outings, and its series of discussions/study groups. Mentioned also are the teachers, many of which were women. The readings provide insight into the breadth of theological, intellectual, and cultural topics the Breslau community felt was important to the education of its youth.]

The Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization Summer Program in Breslau

  • Gatherings once a week alternating between Monday and Tuesdays evening in the Südpark and in Scheitnig.
  • Field trips every other Sunday (see announcements in this paper).
  • Smaller groups will meet to prepare the following themes for the fall and winter activities.
  1. Prophetism. Readings: [Carl Heinrich] Cornill: “Der israelitische Prophetismus.” Led by Miss. Lucie Jacobsohn,  19 Nikolaistadtgraben.
  2. Mishnah and Talmud. Reading: Kraus, “Mischnah, Bernfeld, Talmud.“ Led by Miss Else Nellhaus, 56 Vikortastrasse. Telephone: Ring 5897
  3. Abraham Geiger. Reading: Excerpts from Abraham Geiger’s life and works. Led by [Lawyer] Erich Spitz, 4 Guttenbergstrasse. Telephone Ring 175.
  4. Sadducees and Pharisees. Reading: [Rudolf] Leszynsky, “Sadducees and Pharisees.” Led by Curt Brienitzer, 3 Höfschenplatz. Telephone Ring 1797.
  5. Apologetics. Reading: [Moritz] Güdemann, “Apologetics.” Led by Miss Frieda Karger, 17 Klosterstrasse.
  6. The Question of Race. Led by Mr. Ludwig Korn, 171 Kaiser Wilhelmstrasse. Telephone Ring 2988.
  7. Worship and its History. Reading: [Ismar] Elbogen, “Worship and synagogal poetry.” Led by Miss Lotte Leschziner, 21 Kaiser Wilhelmstrasse. Telephone Ring 274.
  8. Teachings of Juadism. :Reading: Volume of the same name by the Association of German Jews. Led by Mr. Fritz Stoll, 116 Viktoriastrasse, Telephone Ring 2284.
  9. Koheleth. Readings and Interpretations. Led by Mr. Erich Bayer, 13 Karlsstrasse, Telephone Ring 2702.
  10. Structure and Meaning of Jewish Organizations in Germany. Led by Mr. Alfred Berger, 61 Höfschenstrasse.

Meetings take place in the homes of leaders. Planned are 3 to 4 meetings lasting 1 to 1 and 1/2 hours. Mailed or telephone registrations will be accepted until June 2 by the individual leaders. Alternately, you can mail registrations for all groups to Mr. Alfred Berger, 61 Höfschenstrasse.

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, May 20, 1921


Anti-Semitism and the Bible.

by Dr. Ed. König, Professor of Protestant Theology at the University of Bonn.

Open Your Eyes!

by Fritz Stoll (Breslau)

Synopsis: Stoll analyzes the discussion on Palestine and Zionism that took place during the April 10, 1921 meeting of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith.


The Jacobson School in Seesen, an endangered Jewish cultural institution

Synopsis: Founded in 1801 by Israel Jacobson, an adherent to the philosophy of Moses Mendelsohn, this school is now threatened by the economic disaster that has followed the war. It opened with twelve poor boys and by 1901 had educated 4,180 boys, including orphans and sons of wealthy families, Christians and Jews.

Jakob Wasserman.
“My Life as German and Jew”

[“My Life as German and Jew” published by S. Fischer Verlag, Berlin. 1921.]

[Translation] The epic novelist, Wassermann, unarguably counts among the best and most original minds at work in Germany today. Of some of his books, one can say with absolute confidence that they will victoriously outlast many literary styles and trends, finding readers and admirers in future times. His great novels, “Das Gänsemänchen” and “Christian Wahnschaffe,” are like diagrams of our modern “culture,” powerful portraits of the soul of our epoch, through which cultural historians of the future will be able to learn more than from countless other voluminous printed sources.

Wasserman’s large body of narrative works are like gigantic, colorful carpets possessing their own illumination, into which are woven many, many individual fates, experiences, and actions; and everywhere in his books, just as in some old German cities, one finds places and corners of unforgettable, magical-poetic charm, all of which is seen and portrayed in his unique, new way.

I have read most of Wassermann’s books, the first of them decades ago,– and they have all stayed so alive and present, as though I had just gotten to know them yesterday.

Wassermann is—next to Thomas Mann—the only contemporary German author, that begs a comparison to the greatest narrators of world literature such as Dostojewski, Balzac, Dickens, Manzoni. What differentiates him from these masters, is one important trait: he has absolutely no sense of humor! Over all of his writings lies a heavy, masculine seriousness, indeed over some of them is a frightening dread that lies heavily on one’s spirit and years later continues to affect one with odd suggestiveness.

The author has given us the key to this deep, dark mind, which has absolutely nothing to do with neo-romantic, “nervous melancholy, in a short, meaningful autobiography and confessional, “Mein Weg als Deutscher und Jude,” recently published by S. Fischer in Berlin.

It is a book that affects one to the core and calls to mind Nietzsche’s words: “Of all that is written, I love only that which one writes with his blood.”…

Wasserman depicts for us the odyssey of his own soul, which clearly has not yet found its Ithaca! He describes the dual sorrows which have spared in him nothing in a quiet and simple tone, which is all the more effective. . .

The first sorrow is the course of his life. He had to deal with terrible circumstances before he could succeed. He lifted himself out of the bitterest poverty, had to suffer hunger and deprivation as only a few do, until he was free to write. Misunderstanding, lovelessness and the coldness of his family, his surroundings, his “friends” were like insurmountable walls that constrained his path so that he had neither drive nor light to live by.

Some other distinguished minds have withstood such misery and written about it. Hebbel, for example, complains that even when he was a well-known and often staged playwright, he didn’t eat any hot food for his main meal for two months; Kleist wasted away terribly and Cervantes literally died of starvation.

But the second momentous sorrow of Wasserman’s has never before been portrayed with such anguishing bitterness by a great author as here: that is the effects of the hatred of Jews.

Granted, various Jewish authors have written movingly about the troubles caused by Anti-Semitism: Schnitzler’s “Weg ins Freie” is a sorrowful plaint, from Jakobowski’s “Werther, der Jude,” comes the sound of a controlled sobbing, Berthold Auerbach speaks with great pain caused by these sad things in his many letters, and the gifted philosopher Simmel is …. When still at the highpoint of his life,

Wird von diesem Verunglimpfungen noch auf der Hoehe seines Lebens als schon allgemein Geschaetzter und anerkkanter aufs tiefste beugt. Alone, as mentioned, is the effect so moving and depressing that this injustice brings to upstanding people with a finely articulated soul, has never been depicted.

Wassermann emphasizes, and none who is a justly critical connoisseur of German art and culture has ever questioned, nor can deny this, that he deems himself to be a thoroughly German-feeling German and simultaneously a Jewish-feeling Israelite. “I am German, and I am Jewish, one as much and as completely as the other, one cannot be separated from the other,” he confesses. (page 126.)

This insight has something of the obvious. Wassermann’s work has always been, along with others, compelling evidence that, despite what fanatics might think, here exists a vibrant, creative, and fruitful synthesis between Jewishness and German-ness—that these blendings are completely possible and not even rare.

At the end of his book, the writer expresses the hope that time will somehow cure the evil of Anti-Semitism to a certain degree. I don’t dare to judge whether this hope is valid. Hatred of Jews in a certain form is a social-political manifestation that has existed for millennia and will not so soon disappear.

I recently read in the city’s archives a report composed centuries ago by a famous professor of Mathematics, an unusually clear-thinking and intelligent man who made lasting contributions to his field. In this report the learned man tries to prove that most women with red hair are witches and should be burned!

It’s easy to smile over such “outdated perspectives.” However, it is harder and more instructive to understand the spirit of these times and to immerse oneself in it so that one understands how this otherwise great man of science could hold this superstition.

So too does Antisemitism compare in large part with this medieval intellectual confusion. Eradicating such things is beyond human power, for it is known that there are forces against which even the gods struggle with futility….

Wasserman’s book is moving, deep, and yet simple document of the times of lasting value, that will hopefully also resonate in many non-Jewish hearts.

We German Jews can be proud of an artist and individual like Wasserman. The more such figures we bring forth, the more incontrovertible proof we have against the arguments of inferiority and instability made about us. Dr. L. D.

p. 3.

League of National German Jews.

We were asked to publish the following statement: [Translator’s note: The paper published the statement indeed, but “fact-checks” were interspersed which I italicized for readability’s sake.]
Letters and inquiries from the broader  Breslau Jewish communities cause the signatory to make the following declarations:

It is not correct that the League of National German Jews accept those persons as members that don’t belong to the Jewish community (Dissidents).

The opposite is true! The bylaws state: Eligible are men and women with German citizenship and of Jewish descent who have not rejected Judaism.

It is not correct, that the League wants to lead its members toward one political party.

The opposite is true!

The League has no intention of caring about the political leanings of its members, which is why nationally-oriented Social Democrats, of which there are not a few, are just as welcome as those individuals who stand more to the right in terms of political parties.

It is not correct, that the League views the Central Organization as an opponent and intends to fight against it.

The opposite is true!

The League wants to act in the interest of German Jews along with the Central Organization, and that’s why the members of the League are by and large also members of the Central Organization, whose objective it is to stand against any limitation of German Jews’ civil rights. The League’s objective is a very different one.

The League facilitates the union of those–but only of those German Jews who openly declare their heritage–who feel inexorably bound to the German spirit and German culture such that their whole thinking and feeling is governed by the awareness of their German-ness, regardless of the direction of their religious beliefs. It seeks to establish true understanding with the non-Jewish German fellow citizens based on the foundation of a common German nationalist feeling, which is often undermined among German Jews by Anti-Semitism. And it strives to educate our youth according to the national German spirit.

It is not correct that the League has failed to fight the attacks that have been made on it in the Breslau Jewish press.

The opposite is true!

The “Jewish Liberal Newspaper” – only this one comes under consideration—was kind enough to cede the League its columns. An essay by Dr. Max Naumann himself, which has been with the editors for a while now and couldn’t be printed because of technical reasons, will soon be published.
Eugen Freund (Breslau).

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Jewish Horticultural School. Berlin’s Jewish community contributed land between Buckow and Mariendorf to establish the school, led by J. Brandt, a local landowner and member of the Jewish garden club. Those wishing to sponsor this endeavor can contact Siegbert Wolff.

 Königsberg. The president of the East Prussian branch of the German Democratic Party sent a mandate to local chapters stating that the poisonous, damaging anti-Semitic rabble-rousing carried out by the German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation is to be decisively denounced for the good of our common interests. The impetus for such a statement were certain events in Insterburg where the Federation conducted a brazenly partisan and racist campaign against the city administration and Councilman Eichelbaum, who had agreed to serve without pay as the interim mayor until a new mayor could be found. The mandate emphasized how harmful and despicable it was to disturb social and civil peace with these Anti-Semitic actions, especially at a time like this when the nation is suffering, and needs the fullest determination and cooperation and usefulness of all of its citizens. The text of the statement is as follows:

To all regional and local organizations of the German Democratic Party, East Prussian Association, 7th May, 1921
As is well-known, for quite a while now the German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation has been carrying out the basest, anti-Semitic agitation  that must disgust anyone that has even the least spark of tact or taste. Recently this Federation went to one of its local chapters assembly in Insterberg and decided to personally attack the actions of a very respectable man just because he was of Jewish descent. In Insterburg, their mayor, Dr. Rosencrantz, had just been nominated to be “Regierungspräsident” in Sumbinnen and a newly elected mayor had not yet taken up his post, and at the behest of numerous citizens concerned about the city’s administration and nominated by the city council, the former long-standing president of the Insterburg chamber of commerce, Councilman Eichelbaum, temporarily took on the post of mayor until a new mayor could be properly installed. Everyone should recognize and appreciate that this was not a light responsibility and was a significant sacrifice for a man in his sixties, regardless of any criticism of individual actions taken by the previous mayor. But what does the Protection and Defiance Federation do? It made a hateful speech that ended with this conclusion:

We demand that until the new mayor is installed, the leadership of our hometown be given immediately into the hands of Christian, German men.”

Leipzig. Throughout Germany a “Flyer from the German People’s Council” is being distributed:

“Finish the Jews! One doesn’t antagonize beasts, one kills them. Each has to decide for himself whether individual Jews are animals or not, but Judaism itself is a beast to all non-Jewish peoples. There is no point to antagonize this beast with mere pricks, least of all today when they have power. We must free ourselves from this beasts; don’t antagonize them, kill them. The Jews led the German people to the slaughtering bench in 1918/1919. Now they are contemplating how best to deliver the final blow.”

The author and distributor of these shocking flyers is Dr. Heinrich Pudor’s “German Council” in Leipzig. It is high time that the government administration deals with this matter thoroughly.

Dresden. Expulsion of Eastern Jews.  The state assembly of Saxony debated the expulsion of foreigners, during which the socialist minister of the interior, Lipinski, emphasized the danger posed by Eastern Jews and assured that the government of Saxony would do everything it could to avoid this danger.

Local Events.

Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization of Breslau. In order to bring together a music group, all musicians, regardless of the instrument the play, are requested to send in their addresses to Mr. Kurt Nellhaus, Museumsplatz 9.


Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization. Pentecost Outing. During the Pentecost holidays, the Organization held its first large outing of the year.  On the morning of the 15th, 17 young people took the train to Steinkirche from where they walked to the Rummelsberg and then to Pogath. There they cooked lunch and went on to Heinrichau. The next day they took the train to Wartha and toured that town after which they walked to the Spitzberg. Lunch was cooked again in the forest. That evening they took the train back to Breslau from Wartha.

Max Vogelstein asks us to notify you that his article in issue 22 of this publication “On the Palestine Question – keren hayesod” was originally intended for the “Kameraden” newspaper, but he decided to publish it here after the article “Must That Be?” appeared here.

Aus der Presse.

“Frankfurter Zeitung”: Wir wollen uns von diesen Juden das Essen nicht verekeln lassen. A trial in Giessen illustrates the growing fanatical anti-Semitism at German universities. Fraternity members severely beat a Jewish student, who happened also to be a decorated veteran of the trenches. The Jewish student punched one of five students who were heckling him. The beating ended when some workers decided to teach the students a lesson. The Jewish student was found guilty of provoking the attack that left him seriously wounded. Luckily, this injustice was corrected during the sentencing where he received a fine for one charge and was declared innocent of the second charge. One expects that the 5 fraternity members will eventually be charged and tried.

The “Kreuzzeitung” published the resolution that the Congress of Noblemen took on May 12 in Berlin where they stated, “we refute the materialistic Jewish spirit of fatherlandlessness, avarice, and gratification, which has caused our people to sink so low. The editors ask themselves whether this so-called Jewish spirit is so common in the circles represented by the Congress of Noblemen that it was worthy of a formal resolution refuting it.

Book Reviews.

“Lebensbücher der Jugend,” edited by Friedrich Düsel, published by Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig. Synopsis:  A series of illustrated literary classics for young people includes volumes of Theodor Storm, Timm Kröger, Li Maria Heckel, Elisabeth Dauthendy, and Armand’s “In Texas.” The reviewer recommends this series as healthy intellectual fodder for boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16.

Family Announcements

Engagements: Editha Wilda (Breslau) with Manfred Rosenfeld; Clara Herrnstadt (Breslau) with Herbert Guttmann (Breslau); Lisbeth Groβ (Breslau) with Rudolf Baumann (Leipzig); Leni Leschinski (Breslau) with Doctor Hans Taterka; Käthe Bruck (Breslau) with Hugo Jokl (Dresden); Alice Lustig (Breslau) with Jonas Rebensaft (Berlin); Fridel Finkenstein with Arthur Meyer (Breslau); Hanni Böhm (Zalenze) with Hans Warschawsky (Breslau); Paula Wolff (Löwenberg ) with Arthur Wolff (Hirschberg); Otti Forell (Frankfurt a. M.) with Ernst Baerwald (Osaka, Japan); Johanna Glaser (Breslau) with Max Klein (Fürstenberg a. O.); Doctor Gertrud Hammerstein (Stettin) with Doctor Erich Rosenhain (Braunschweig).

Marriages: Max Feige and Betty Gottheiner; Max Gerstel and Grete Prinz (Strehlen); Julius Sachs and Mimi Riesenfeld (Breslau); Herbert Schweitzer and Resi Brasch; Sally Biberfeld and Grete Wolff (Wreschen); Paul Jacob and Ilse Wolff (Wüstegiersdorf); Georg Ritter and Käthe Weinberg (Liegnitz); Dr. Curt Bromberg and Käthe Grundt (Breslau).

Births: Son: Julius Nathan and Gertrud, neé Herrnstadt (Breslau);  Alfred Uhlemann and Liese, neé Simmel (Breslau); Otto Weiβ and Rosa, neé Heppner (Breslau); Hans Wohlauer and Hertha, neé Simmenauer (Breslau); Georg Eckstein and Steffi, neé Ka[ ]schinsky (Breslau).

Daughter: Josef Schwars and Rosi, neé  Appelbaum (Breslau); Otto Jacobsohn and Erna-Marie,  neé Danziger (Breslau); Doctor Erich Schneemann and Erna, neé Silberberg (Breslau); Georg Hauschner and wife, neé Wartenberger (Breslau); Heinrich Loewy and Frieda, neé Löwi (Breslau).

Deaths: David Böhm (Zawadzki); Julius Leipziger (Berlin); Friderike Grunauer, neé Kaelter (Breslau); Dr. med. Arthur Leppmann (Berlin); Oskar Zittwitz (Strehlen); Franziska Libas, neé Naphtali (Breslau); Leopole Grabowsky (Ostrowo); Abraham Matthias (Koschmin); Rosa Rubin, neé Zendig; Wilhelm Falk (Breslau); Simon Ritter (Breslau); Bianca Rieβ, neé Ollendorff (Breslau); Jenny Pino[…], neé Braun (Breslau).

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Restarting translations–why now?

Visitors to this site, I apologize for neglecting this project, not adding translations, not even blogging. It’s time to re-commit as I believe tracing early signals of antisemitism is unfortunately once again relevant as some Americans and Europeans are rekindling it. Attacks on Jews are increasing and antisemitic speech appears in public forums.

Let me continue the story of the remarkable community of Reform Jews as it comes to grips with the changes between 1920 and 1934 while sustaining its intellectual, social, and religious identity.

To speed our discovery of remarkable milestones and intriguing glimpses into the experience of this Jewish community, I will selectively translate articles that disclose current events and provide insight into how people responded to them. So that you can see each issue as whole and the context for the articles I choose, I will translate the titles of all articles and link to the relevant page.

Thank you to the visitors to this web site. And double thanks if you spend time learning some of the history and reading the personal stories posted here.

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, May 13, 1921


Zionist Liberalism.

by Rabbi Dr. Jacob (Dortmund).
Synopsis: An unusual phenomenon in German Judaism is the appearance of a Liberal Zionism. German liberal Jews see their participation in the development of Palestine as a means to increase the influence of Reform Judaism.
[Translation]“Here [in Palestine]a Judaism that’s liberated from the rigidity of orthodox Judaism can exist. For they can conceive of the Judaism of the new Palestine only as one that’s in harmony with modern culture and civilization and frees modern man from intolerable ritualistic rules.”
Synopsis: Dr. Jacob declares both assumptions to be false. He underscores that Judaism will never be a political force, only a religious one and German Jewish influence is not a matter of contributions or representation, but a consequence of its religious values.
[Translation]“In the 19th century, German Jewry did not play a global role—that was left to the philanthropists of England and France (Moses Montefiore, Adolf Cremieux, and the Universal Israelite Alliance). On the other hand, they did have worldwide influence in that Germany was the source of a modern Jewish scientific approach to the history and teachings of Judaism and the basis of the new Jewish religious services and education. What enabled them to play this role was the fact that they grew up breathing German air and fed on the German spirit that was the uncontested world leader in the realm of the scientific approach to philosophy and history. Zunz, Geiger, Frankel, Hirsch, etc. were the disciples of Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Böckh, Grimm, Niebuhr, Savigny and the whole host of brilliant minds that will be Germany’s claim to fame for all time, and cannot be confiscated by some council. The German people certainly want political power and have a right to it. But the triumph of Judaism can only be grounded in the intellectual realm. The great man who shows Jews new paths and reveals new depths to our religion will be worth more than all of America’s millions. Bringing such men forth and supporting them in every way is German Jewry’s means to leadership. Then, even if most of the seats in Palestine’s council stagnate religiously, the spirit that leads the council’s administration, organization, and execution will not sink in mediocrity, turning its intellectual and spiritual leaders into bureaucrats and functionaries. Germany may well be politically destroyed, but its spirit which once led the world is not dead, and that’s why the German Jewry is not yet to be written off, if it doesn’t want to be.”
Synopsis: Jacob is puzzled by the recent hopes of Liberal Jews toward Palestine since liberal Judaism sprang from the opposition to Judaism’s rigid ties to Palestine. It took seriously the historical development that separated the people of Israel from Palestine, and because they are committed citizens of the fatherland, which had given them a new history, while Palestine came to be a pious, yet pale memory. One acted consequentially in terms of redefining religious life: all prayers for the restoration of the temple, the sacrificial services, a Jewish kingdom or a return to the holy land were struck and such hopes and longings were ceremoniously denied. And now Liberal Judaism is to go backwards?, he asks.
[Translation]“Those that think Palestine will be the center of Liberal Judaism are deluding themselves. Do they really think that a Synedrion in Jerusalem will allow pork to be eaten, to work, drive, or smoke on the Sabbath, to eat on Yom Kippur? For that’s how “liberalism” or countless Jews is defined. This indifferent libertinism will never be recognized by the orthodoxy. The newly developed Palestine is not meant to be a new beginning, but a continuation, and based on the holy book and law. We should not speak of “rigidity” because it will be influenced by the modern approaches to the studying the sacred texts and teaching theology and will continue to be exposed to new intellectual currents. It’s been thus for all time—during the time of the second temple the land had every imaginable religious belief. There were Shammai-ites and Hillel-ites, Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes, Hellenists and atheists, and the same soil brought forth a new religion that was not only based on Israel’s law and Messiah and testified to the one God of Israel—and became Judaism’s bitterest enemy.
I’ve taken the side of Zionism in my negative critique of modern Judaism and its inner turmoil. The one thing I could hold against it is its name. If Zionism were true to its name it would have Zion at its hear. Zion was the holy mountain on which the temple stood, a lodestone for the land and people of Israel. The goal of a true Zionism must therefore be the rebuilding of the temple on Zion in order to bring the the entire people of Israel under a single ruler of David’s house and to be free from foreign rule and to live according to the old law of the Torah. This has been the hope only of traditional Judaism for two thousand years as expressed in its prayers. How could I recognize a Zionism that is driven by politics and where religion is dismissed as a private matter and is led by atheists? When the people of Israel first entered this land, the first law held that every trace of foreign religions must be destroyed. And now we should have a Palestine in the middle of which rule the cross, a mosque and the savior’s grave? Judaism is appointed to be the protector of these foreign holy places? From a religious perspective, what is the difference between Jerusalem and New York, London or Berlin?
Liberal Judaism, which is rooted in clear ideas should not be caught up in reactionary romanticism that ignores undeniable circumstances nor in a mythical materialism as though the Palestine’s soil and air were imbued with a magical power. A Jewish Palestine will always be called upon to preserve historical ruins and function as a museum guard. Liberalism’s promotion of Zionism might be a clever chess move as it gives the Orthodoxy the chance to show the world the kind of utopia that would result from completely following the law of the Torah. Their experiments will of course reveal many problems which will in the end only serve to enlighten all of Judaism. But such a policy wouldn’t be necessary, because the Orthodoxy doesn’t need any prompting and it would be unworthy since in the area of religion, chess moves don’t win.
Liberalism doesn’t want to be suspected of supporting Palestine out of despair over its own viability in the diaspora, of grasping at this life saver. Or because it doesn’t want to miss the opportunity to adopt this slogan that seems to catch on with the youth. It’s the responsibility of the more mature to warn the youth about misleading slogans, and if it doesn’t have any ideal ones, to provide real ones and not false ones. Let them get to know Judaism through an active religious life and thorough study of our writings in their original language, that is, through learning—without that all discussion of Judaism is just empty talk.
Perhaps those that have thrown themselves in the arms of Jewish-folkish nationalism, see despair about the German people and their future. Certainly, the German people have shown some miserable sides and its future is very dark. But like it or not, this is our fatherland and we are children of its spirit. Whosoever can’t take it any more must leave, but if you stay, you must not work against it.
The only perspective that’s left for contributing to the rebuilding of Palestine is the humanitarian one. I won’t address it in depth, but one thing must be said, as effective a claim on the Jewish heart it is and as much as one wants to follow it in other times, for the German Jews no worse time could have been chosen than now where misery close at hand cries out for help.”

On the Palestine Question.

A letter by Dr. Paul Nathan (Berlin).
Synopsis: Dr. Nathan critiques Max Vogelstein’s portrayal of Zionism in his May 6th article. He maintains that most Zionists have not changed their views—it’s Palestine’s and the world’s situation that has changed. Instead of being in the hands of the weak Turkish empire, the British control holds far more promise, as testified to in a speech Winston Churchill gave in Jerusalem on March 28, 1921. However, Churchill declared Palestine open to Arabs, Jews, and Christians and that it cannot become “the National Home for Jews.” This speech should make clear to the Zionist leadership that their plans cannot be fulfilled, which should end the bitter disputes between Zionists and non-Zionists. With regards to the opinion that German Jews are too poor to contribute to Palestine’s development, Nathan writes that there are certainly both Zionists and non-Zionists who will feel it their duty to rebuild both Germany and Palestine.

The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of Germany against the Central Organization of German Jews.

Synopsis: The Rhineland’s union of synagogues sent a letter to its congregations to correct the message contained in a flyer created by the union of orthodox Jewish congregations of Germany (headquartered in Halberstadt). The flyer decries the long-awaited creation of a Central Organization of German Jews, whereas German Jews finally have a means of ending their strife and unifying to deal with the difficult future that they are facing.

True Christianity.

Despite Henry Ford’s anti-Semitic campaigning, Americans have signaled that they want nothing to do with this anti-Semitic filth. In addition to John Spargo’s condemnation of anti-Semitism that was signed by many illustrious politicians, poets, and individuals, especially a great number of Catholic and other Christian clerics, the Churches of Christ have also condemned anti-Semitism. The organization includes approximately 149,000 Protestant churches with 19.5 million members. Similarly, the Knights of Columbus declared that anti-Semitism is un-American and must be combated. . .and that proponents of racial hatred are either bolshevist fanatics or other seducers who should be thrown out of the country. American Christians have rightly recognized that making a group into second-class citizens goes against the central principle of democracy.

Gyges – Judaism.

A review of the work written by Rabbi Dr. Fuchs, Chemnitz, published by Verlag Gustav Engel, Leipzig, 1921.
Synopsis: Rabbi Fuchs examines the crisis of Liberal Judaism and its ebbing influence on German Jewry. He sees Liberal Judaism as caught up in theory and not able to give the indifferent masses a sense of Jewish being. The solution is to emphasize the Jewish sense of community. The reviewer agrees with Fuchs up to this point, but in his opinion, a sense of community must be anchored in the Jewish religion.

Referendum Days.

by Anna Goldschmidt.
Synopsis: Two letters between good friends, Ilse and Anna, cross in the mail. The letters give us insight into how the referendum on the governance of Upper Silesia was experienced on either side of the border. Anna lives in Nordhausen, a town at the foot of the Harz mountains; Ilse lives in Kattowitz, Upper Silesa. In her letter, Anna expresses her concern over the turmoil and tension Ilse must deal with living in Upper Silesia during this troubled time. Ilse’s letter, on the other hand, is filled with exuberance and enthusiasm. The fact that the house is filled with relatives and business acquaintances is a cause for celebration and even gives romance a chance to bloom. As for the political outcome of the vote, Ilse predicts victory for those choosing German over Russian rule.

Aus dem Reich.

Munich. The Jewish Question. The deep alienation among social groups, especially between Jews and Christians, was the impetus behind the Munich chapter of the Central Organization of German Citizens of Jewish Faith’s inviting leading members of both sides to a discussion. This took place in the overly full upper hall at the Bauerngirgl on Monday evening. Dr. Wiener, representing the Central Organization, took over an hour to provide an overview of the many issues subsumed by the Jewish Question topic, supported by many citations of the literature. He emphasized that the Central Organization is firmly grounded in patriotism and aims to strengthen this feeling in its members. He then addressed the individual complaints made about Judaism. One of the most frequent complaints made in Bavaria and Munich is that Jews brought about the revolution. Even if it were true that Jews were the leading figures in the revolutions in Russia and the Bavarian Soviet Republic, one must view these circumstances in their historical context. The Jew is conservative and doesn’t cause upheaval, but in Russia Jews had witnessed horrific persecution at the hands of the Czarist regime and grew to hate this regime. In any case, not all Soviet leaders were Jews. Of the 17 members of the Central Committee, only one was Jewish: Trotsky. Never mentioned is the fact that the absolute enemies of the Bolsheviks were the mensheviks, who were Jews. The Bolshevist rule did not benefit the Jews—over 100,000 Jews were murdered by the Bolsheviks, their economic and religious institutions destroyed. In Germany too, Judaism has nothing to do with the political, Jewish, hotheads of the revolution. It is absolutely incorrect to maintain that the Jews are a unified, single-minded force that seeks world domination. Further, one never mentions that Christians too were and are revolutionaries and that Jews were also held hostage. That Jews belong only to the radical left-wing parties can be explained by the long-time anti-Semitic principles held by the right-wing parties. Because of them, Jews were in large part driven into the leftist parties. It’s also not true that all socialist leaders are Jews—-David Liebknecht, Klara Zetkin, Kautsky, among others are not Jews. As for the Jewish members of government, these don’t want to be thought of as Jewish, just politicians. With regards to the question of the Eastern Jews, the speaker pointed out that during the war about 8,000 to 10,000 Eastern Jews were brought in by the government to replace miners doing military service. And these remain here even now. By the way, these Eastern Jews can be used to develop German trade which is developing in the East—-England is making every effort to win over Eastern Jews to help with their trade. The speaker then addressed the question of race, that German-ness and Germanic roots are not identical in terms of race. It has absolutely not been proven that Arian roots are a requirement for Germanness [Deutschtum]. Many great Germans, who have been appropriated as “German” were and are of Jewish decent.
In response to the accusation that Jews tried to get out of military service, he pointed out that over 11,000 Jews died in battle. In conclusion the speaker turned to the most painful of all accusations—that Jews are not patriotic—that is completely incorrect. His statements were factual and calm, but contrasted to the form and factual presentation of the rest of the lecture. Finally, two speakers, Herr Meyer (from Absberg) and Königbauer, president of the state parliament, spoke words of conciliation complementing the point of the evening. They emphasized the ethical and moral side of the question, wishing for more consideration of Jewish circles by the general populace, but most importantly emphasizing the absolute need for a unified people during these times of shared need. In his conclusion, Dr. Wiener emphasized that patriotic Jews had nothing to do with the Zionist movement , and that instead of labellling Jews and Christians, to recognize that a bridge connects the two cultures.

Hamburg. The local representatives of the Jewish community debated the new constitution of the Central Organization of German Jewry. Orthodox members were concerned that their perspective was not taken into consideration. The delegate to the constitutional committee, Dr. Kalmus, assured them that was not the case. However, the representatives agreed that they would request that a clause be added that no rulings can be made that contradict any orthodox laws.

Heidelberg. Dr. Niebergall, university professor, lectured on the meaning of Israelite propheticism for world history. Jewish intellectual and religious culture can be traced back to two influences—the Israelite and the Greek. The latter resulted in a philosophical approach to religion and also imbued it with mythos and mystery. Israelite prophets saw the world and God very differently. Instead of approaching God through metaphysical thought, they felt and experienced God directly. The lecturer analyzed church history in light of the prophetic and Greek influences. Just when Greek thinking was dominant in the Christian church, Martin Luther pulled Christianity back into the prophetic, biblical tradition. He concluded that both Judaism and Christianity should reflect on the sources of their perspective and values and use them to build bridges.

Chemnitz. Dr. Walter Brinnitzer’s speech on “Pacifism and Judaism” was very well received by the many attendees.

Munich. Synopsis: Anti-Semitic protests interrupted a lecture by Rabbi Dr. Bärwald sponsored by the Gnostic Society. A group of youth assaulted the audience with sticks and chairs. The police was able to arrest some of the assailants.

From Abroad.

Vienna. Synopsis: The Arian paragraph in the Austrian Tourist Club. (Adopted after rioting.) Circa 4000 of the 11,000 members attended the annual meeting. A speech against adopting the paragraph was met with members wielding umbrellas and sticks. The well-known anti-Semitic parliamentarian, Dr. Riehl, defended the paragraph as a means of protecting German girls from lustful Jews. 3,056 voted for the paragraph and 784 against. As of today, only Arians can belong to the Austrian Tourist Club.

Book Reviews.

“Die Nutzniesser des Bolschewismus” by Dimitri Bulaschow. A review of “The Beneficiaries of Bolschevism” by Bernard Segel writing under the pseudonym of Dimitri B[o]ulaschow in 1921.
Synopsis: Segel seeks to prop up the reactionary myth that Russia is ruled by Jews with statistics and facts. The reviewer cites statistics to refute his claim: only about 200,000 Jews live near the centers of Soviet power and only 10 Jews are to be found among the leadership and most of these are alienated from or critical of Judaism. However, there are many Jews to be found in the socialist opposition and in the bourgeoisie. The reviewer notes that the “benefit” Russian Jews have drawn from Bolshevism is half a million victims of pogroms, 400,000 orphans, a ruined economy, and the destruction of hundreds of congregations and synagogues. He concludes by highly recommending that this brochure be read to better fight against anti-Semitism.
Thessaloniki. The Jews in Greece. Synopsis: A rumor of ritual murder has caused unrest here. The rumor is not a symptom of a real anti-Semitic movement, rather it is a sign of misguided rabble. An excerpt from an article in the “Frankfurter Zeitung” is printed: Of the city’s 180,000 inhabitants, half are Sephardic Jews and speak Spaniolish [the Ladino dialect] in addition to the Greek, Turkish, and French spoken in business. The latter they learn in the schools run by the French “Alliance Israelite.” They’ve enjoyed the hospitality of the Turks since they arrived in the fifteenth century and received better treatment than any of Turkey’s foreign Christian populations. Even under Greek rule (Greece having scarcely any Jewish inhabitants), Jews have full rights as citizens, serve in the army, can become officers in the reserves, though there are no active Jewish officers in the Greek army. There is no political anti-Semitism and no ethical prejudice against them. Exactly the opposite, the small Jewish currency exchanges are well respected for their dependability.

Local Events.

Israelite Health Care Institute and Burial Society (Chevra Kadsha).

Synopsis: In these difficult financial times, donations are especially needed if society it to continue doing the work it has done in the community for over two hundred years. The very existence of the institute is at stake.

Attention, Anyone with a Toothache! Recently when a young dental technician apprentice applied for a position with the dental technician, Dr. Arbeiter on Blücherplatz, he was asked about his religion. When he said he was Jewish, he was immediately rejected with the words, “Then you needn’t have even waited.” It is therefore to be assumed that Mr. Arbeiter also does not care to have any Jewish clientele.

Traveling Library. Synopsis: To foster religious life in small congregations, the Union of Synagogues of Breslau and Liegnitz maintain a travelling library. Donations of books are requested.

Society for the Blind, “Harmony”

Synopsis: The society marked its 25th anniversary with a concert. The chairman, Adolf Selten, gave an interesting report on how services for the blind have developed. A choir performed a piece by Mr. R. Winkler with text by Selten. Singers and musicians included A. Stöckel (tenor), Clara Reldner (alto), Lotte Rogosinski (pianist).

Rosa Freudenthal Gallery is currently exhibiting a modern synagogue cloth made by Rosa Weyl.

Family Announcements

Engagements: Malli Klinenberger (Breslau) with Joseph Juliusberger, Engineer (Breslau); Lucie Kantorowicz (Breslau) with Dr. Paul Georg Braun (Breslau); Margarete Schwersensky (Breslau) with Georg Zweig (Breslau); Betty Wislicki (Breslau) with David Offenberg (Berlin); Dora Wertheim (Fulda) with Issi Simonsohn (Breslau); Lotte Baron with Dr. Herbert Stein (Munich); Lilly Harry (Breslau) with Rudolf Borowitsch (Dresden).
Marriages: Representative Dr. Mortitz Stern with Aenne Rosenberg (Breslau); Siegbert Gorzelanczyk with Gertrud Lublin (Breslau); dr. Walter Meckauer with Lotte Peiser (Breslau); Walter Stern with Eva Bielschowsky (Breslau).
Births: Son: Richard Callomon and Grete, née Rachwalsky (Breslau); Dr. Erich Simm and Alice, née Eger (Berlin); Mortiz Lippmann and Elli, née Hirschberg (Breslau); James Aron and Margarete, née Gittler.
Daughter: Fritz Wolff and Alice, née Bernstein (Breslau); Willi Ziffer and Rosa, née Moses (Breslau); Louis Pinczower and Paula, née Riesenfeld (Neustadt, Upper Silesia).
Deaths: Sara Miedzwinski, née Singer (Berlin); Julius Michalek (Breslau); Paul Cohn (Reichenbach in Silesia); Gustav Klein (Breslau); Anna Fuchs (Breslau); Johanna Wiener (Breslau); Hedwig Saphir, née Adler (Breslau); Robert Ittmann (Breslau); Curt Ritter (Berlin); Clara Goldstücker, née Forell (Friedenau).


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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, May 6, 1921

p. 1

The Old Testament and Judaism, A Response to the “Deutsche Zeitung”.

by Counselor Ed. König (Bonn).
Synopsis: König was taken to task by the “Deutsche Zeitung” for lecturing on what the Jewish and Christian views of the Old Testament have in common. He first defends himself against being labeled a “traditionalist” by citing the modern, critical approach his scholarly work takes to analyzing the bible. He then further supports his claim that the Jewish and Christian views of the Old Testament do not diverge as much as theologians like Franz Delitzsch and Max Maurenbrecher posit. König counters the claim that the Jews regard the Old Testament very differently from how Christians regard the New Testament by describing how Judaism was not solely focused on laws (e.g. the apocryphal and post-exile writings) and how Christianity was much more focused on laws than commonly accepted, both having a strong prophetic tradition.

On the Palestine Question – keren hayesod.

by Max Vogelstein (Breslau).
The editors note that this article is a response to the article, “Muβte das sein?” by R. A. Spitz published in the April 22, 1921 issue.
Synopsis: Max Vogelstein states that he is not representing any official Jewish organization or local chapter as he expresses his opinion. He begins his article by citing a recent article Dr. Paul Nathan where he claims that the barriers that separated Zionists and non-Zionists have fallen in the face of the Palestinian Mandate. Vogelstein disagrees and goes on to assert that, “We hold the Zionist agenda to contradict the essence of Judaism, whether it can be realized or not. That’s why we must reject Zionism and under no circumstances lend it any support.” Even the facts that Nathan brings to bear on this argument can’t change this position. Vogelstein is so critical of the Zionists because their goals in Palestine are national (which keren hayesod represents) and not social. Vogelstein feels that there are so many social issues facing Jews, especially for German Jews whose number one duty must be to help rebuild the devastated fatherland.
As evidence of keren hayesod’s nationalist interests Vogelstein points to their resolutions outlining how to build up Palestine’s national treasury and how to allocate it—one third for land purchases, job creation, education, relief for immigrants, etc. but two thirds for national and economic institutions and endeavors. He quotes Schmarja Levin, a Zionist leader, who says that the keren hayesod is “a matter for the entire Zionist organization and for all the Jewish people.” Then he exclaims, “Only those who feel they belong to the Jewish “folk” should donate. Not us!” And he re-asserts that Zionists and non-Zionists are still going their separate ways.
Vogelstein then brings up the matter of the Eastern European Jews and how their problems must be dealt socially. The money flowing to the keren hayesod would be better put to use helping this population. Moving them all to Palestine is unrealistic and something must be done to improve their situation in the East.
He concludes by pointing out the importance to Jewish “Wissenschaft” to the renewal and strengthening of Judaism and reminding the reader of the dismal state of the rabbinical seminaries, educational institutions, scientific organizations, and libraries. How helpful it would be if keren hayesod could divert some funds to support these. As much as it grieves us, the Palestine work must be left to the Zionists alone.

On the Central Organization’s Palestine Resolution.

The editors received the following editorial from Johannes Wilhelm:
Synopsis: The board of the Central Organization made its position on the Palestine development fund clear at its April 10th meeting, unambiguously distancing itself from Zionist goals. The author critiques the “Muβte das sein?” article for its representation of how a slim majority pushed through this resolution. This author speaks of the courage it took to make this resolution despite the fact that it would cause some to leave the organization, especially those that do not recognize the danger Zionism poses to German Jewry. People from all over the empire voted for the resolution, though Dr. Paul Nathan and a number of Berliners did not support it.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Jewish Children’s Aid
Synopsis: At its last meeting, the German Jews’ Central Aid Committee decided to hold a collection for Jewish Children’s Aid, but to defer it until the German Children’s Aid collection campaign ended. The funds from the German Children’s Aid collection that go to Jewish children are simply not enough given the degree of need.
Berlin. The Aid society for Jewish Emigration Affairs is responsible for regulating the emigration that goes through Germany, for advising emigrants, and for communicating with other organizations to effect systematic and coordinated support of emigrants. Dr. Nathan Ben Nathan has been appointed Secretary of the Central Bureau. Volunteers are welcome. Headquarters are in Berlin, Steglitzerstraβe 12, and local offices are in Hamburg (Ferdinandstraβe 14) and Bremen (Düsternstraβe 7). Other offices at border crossings and main railroad stations are planned. Discussions are being held with shipping companies and foreign Jewish immigration organizations. Just as before the war, the Central Bureau will publish a newsletter with information about emigration and will notify and brief the press about emigration issues.

Von Liebe und Leid.

A biblical novella by Walter Brinitzer.
Synopsis: A man leaves his wife for 7 days to find a certain fruit tree for his orchard. On the day of his return, the kind of ghosts sees her and desires her. He promises to spare her if she promises in turn to follow him wherever he goes. She was true to her word, but one night he cannot control his lust. She is saved when he is struck dead by a bolt of lightning. To give thanks, she builds a temple and selects seven wise men to praise God by preaching his word. Sorrow entered the temple’s door but love came out having heard the word of God.
The husband looked everywhere for his wife, praying all the time for help. God took pity on him and after seven years brought him to the temple. Each of the seven wise men give him advice, but were unable to relieve him of his sorrow. This being a first, they sought out their mistress who had them bring the man to her. She didn’t recognize her husband for sorrow had so distorted his face. She told him that his sorrow could not be as great as hers and she tells her story. They recognize each other, and all ends well.
Munich. Jewish businesses listed in an anti-Semitic directory, titled “Little Unchristian Book of Munich to guide purchases, including a list of German doctors and lawyers” by a “völkisch” publisher. The preface states that the listed businesses are “truly German, that is, completely without Jewish influence.” The directory also includes a number of Jewish companies and doctors that seemed to feel insulted and their businesses compromised, by their inclusion in the book (which is decorated with a swastika), as though they had been trying to be secretive about their Jewishness—they brought a complaint against the publisher to prevent it from further distributing the book as long as their names were included. The state court ordered the publisher to cease distributing the book as long as the names of the Jewish plaintiffs were included or face punishment. During the trial, the accused publisher agreed to stop distributing the directory with the Jewish names and pay all legal fees.
Leipzig. Secret Jewish Laws. The directors of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith invited Pastor Fiebig (Leipzig) to speak on this topic in the zoo. Moritz Ury welcomed the audience briefly and asked everyone to maintain a calm and sober attitude. Before Pastor Fiebig moved to his central topic, he identified himself as a chronicler and scientist and as such is free of any influence or constraint. God’s people, he continued, have had from the beginning a duty to hold God’s name holy and suffer for his sake. Because rabbinical literature is treated like a stepchild at the universities, the sources that would provide a better understanding of Jewish laws, and their importance to the psyche and morality have remained hidden. That there exist secret, Jewish, inaccessible laws that justify immorality, or tolerate it, must be decisively rejected. Moreover, in order to understand Jews, one must hold to three fundamental concepts: Justice, Casuistry, and Morality. Justice leads to Casuistry and strives to be moral. Justice must be kept in mind if one wants to understand Jewish writings and social laws. One must refute some of the negative accusations that maliciously place Jewish morality under suspicion and undermine it. 3. Moses 20, 10, for example, threatens Jewish adulterers with death. There is no evidence of a secret permission, as is often claimed, for adultery with non-Jewish women. That consorting with non-Jewish women is somehow “rewarded” with impunity is contradicted by Talmudic threat of punishment for adultery. If that is no longer true today, the fault lies in the lack of Jewish judges. The discussion that followed was passionate. One argued for and against the secret laws. A German-Volkist accused Pastor Fiebig of being an obsequious promoter of Jews.
Hamburg. Synopsis: Dr. Holländer (Berlin) spoke at the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith on how things stand with regards to the responsibility of Jews for Germany’s misfortune. Dr. Holländer counters some of the anti-Semitic myths about Jews and their relationship to the war such as profiteering and shirking military duty. Likewise the idea that Jews are responsible for Bolshevism. He is confident that once the nation has recovered, the power of German honesty, culture, and loyalty will put an end to this scapegoating. During the discussion, Professor Roll concluded that the problem stems less from anything to do with the Jewish faith, rather it is an expression of the worry about the German fatherland. Dr. Cimbal disagreed by claiming that Jews did try to avoid military duty and reminded the audience of the long history of anti-Semitism in Germany.

Aus der Presse.

The “Frankfurter Zeitung” printed the following by Dr. Reinhard Strecker, president of the department of education in Darmstadt, under the heading, “Race and Politics.” He asks which educated person takes the grotesque distortions of racial theory seriously. He thinks the cause of anti-Semitic demagoguery lies in the fact that this generation has lost its soul in the quest for profit and individual and national expansion. He finds a parallel between anti-Semitism and the anti-German war-time propaganda—both seek to destroy the opponent. He shows how racialism becomes a double-edged sword by citing that Mussolini’s newspaper, “Popolo d’Italia,” labelled the Romanians a mongrel, barbaric people when they declared war. Soon after, the same paper hailed them as the worthy sons of ancient Romans, privileged to be members of the Latin race.
p. 4


Jewish Theological Seminary.

Dr. Rabin, on whose appointment to the Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary we recently reported, is 38 years old. The son of a Ukrainian rabbi, he followed the typical Talmudic studies in Russia and was authorized as a rabbi by a well-respected Lithuanian rabbi. He studies oriental languages, history, and philosophy in Germany and Switzerland, passing his doctoral exam summa cum laude in Bern where he also received his teaching certification in history, geography, philosophy, and pedagogy. He taught for several years at the teacher’s seminary of the Aid Association of German Jews in Jerusalem and was then selected to lead the rabbinical training institute in Odessa. When war broke out he was in Germany where he was interned, which brought him into personal contact with professors at Giessen. In 1918 he was appointed as a lector at the University of Giessen for post-biblical Jewish history, then at the University of Frankfurt a. M. where he also taught Hebrew. Dr. Rabin will teach biblical exegesis and history at the Seminary, and take over the intermediate course in the Talmud. His main area of focus is the history of the Masoretic text.

“Schlesische Volksstimme”

The local chapter of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith reported to us:
In recent days, advertisement editions of the “Schlessische Volksstimme” were sent to numerous Jewish families to elicit subscriptions. They were accompanied by circulation numbers that were confirmed by the solicitor, Czaya.
Our brothers and sisters in faith will hopefully not fall for this aggressive advertisement. This edition sent to expand readership interestingly enough does not contain the anti-Semitic clap-trap that this newspaper rarely lacks. For example, one of the recent editions spread the lie that German Jews were traveling in neutral foreign countries and advocating for the separation of the Rhine’s left bank.


Evening of Song with Anita Frenzel.
Synopsis: The program included Brahm’s “Trenning” and “Salome” aws well as Reger’s “Maria Wiegenlied.” The accompanist was Egmont Pollak whose own compositions were also performed: “Albumblatt” and “Schmetterlinge.” As a solo, he played Rubinstein’s “Spanischer Tanz.”

On the Jewish Kur-Hospital in Warmbrunn in the Riesengebirge.

The hospital was founded 43 years ago but its roots go back to the 1830’s when fellow Jews of modest means received assistance to take a cure. The unforgettable Scheimann Schneller contributed so that land could be purchased in the 1870’s and an imposing building constructed that housed those in need during their cure. Due to recent economic conditions, the hospital now asks those who can to pay for part of their stay. The hospital’s annual report requests additional donations so that they can once again house the ill at no cost to them.

Announcements and Advertisements
The girls’ confirmation class begins on May 10.

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, April 22, 1921

Because of Passover, the next issue of our newspaper will appear on Friday, May 6.

by Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein.

More than three thousand years ago a foreign people in the wondrous lands on the Nile gained their freedom after several hundred years of bondage. Leaving a highly cultured and economically thriving land, the freed people went into the desert toward battles and an uncertain future.

The wonderland with its colossal buildings, pyramids, and temples, with its hieroglyphs and mummies, with its blossoming science and art still holds the interest of researchers. But next to the greatness, almost as a condition for the existence of the former, the limitless despotism of the pharaohs, the oppression of the people, the complete negation of individual freedom and independence, stood the people, slaves to the work that created the great monuments, where only a few who belonged to preferred casts earned anything. The aristocratic culture existed only for a few privileged while millions lived primitively. How could foreigners expect a better lot? Even if one of them had been one of the land’s benefactors—gratitude was an unknown concept in the pharaohs’ politics. The foreigners were enslaved and because their resistance was feared, one tried to exterminate them.

The Israelites suffered badly under slavery. But they still retained some of what had come down from their ancestors. They went along with the circumstances, but while the majority of the Egyptians took slavery for granted, they at least had an understanding for the misery that burdened them. The liberator appeared. The hard misfortunes that were dealt the Egyptians became signs to them that the God of their ancestors punished the opposition of the despots. Finally, their opposition was broken and the people could leave the land freely.

In remembrance we celebrate Passover every year. But can we really celebrate something that lies millennia in the past? And is then the fact that it happened to our forefathers enough to bridge the abyss of the millennia? Indeed the celebration would be useless and without meaning, if it didn’t have anything to say to us about ourselves and our lives. That becomes clear in the Passover haggadah. In every era, mankind should see itself as being freed from Egypt. God freed not only our ancestors but us as well.

The question must be asked: What lasting, fruitful effect does this event have? For “only what is fruitful, is true.” That was what was claimed by those teachers that spent Passover together in Bue Brak. That has come down to us from the very little we know of what they spoke about. One interpretation is that the liberation from Egypt is something so mighty that no moment of our existence should pass without thinking about it. The other interpretation is that even in messianic times will its memory be kept alive because it is the route and source of what mankind will have achieved when the messianic prophecy is fulfilled. In this event does the freedom of the individual not only appear as a God-given right, as a religious and moral imperative, but is realized through the freeing of Israel. The idea of freedom has become one of the foundational pillars of the entire religious and moral way of life and “Weltanschaung” of Judaism. Thus, it is not an empty formula, when in the Sabbath prayer and on every holy day the exodus from Egypt is mentioned. But the idea of freedom is simultaneously a duty. One asks, “Free from what?” because the external bonds seem most important to mankind. More important though is the question, “Free to what end?” Only through this question does freedom attain moral value.

Judaism has gone through history as a fighter for freedom. In those times when the unethical position was held that a land’s ruler determined the religious faith of his subjects, Judaism rejected the oppression of the conscience. In times of misery and persecution it called for inner freedom. The ideas embodied by Passover are no less meaningful today than thousands of years ago. As with all historical holy days of Judaism, Passover points to the work of the present, to the aim of the future, through the remembrance of past events. Consequently, the last days of the celebration emphasize thinking of the future.

The world is apparently infinitely far from messianic perfection. But for everyone who seeks ideal values in today’s life, it must be a proud and joyous awareness to be able to work towards the realization of an ideal which was borne out of Egypt by our ancestors.

From Deutsche Gröβe, Friedrich Schiller:
Fighting for reason’s freedom,
Is to fight for all peoples’ rights,
for all eternal time.

Did That Have to Be?

We have ascertained directly with the author of the following essay that it expresses only his personal opinion. The Editors.

As easy as it is, as happy as it makes us, to cross swords with the enemy on the field of intellectual battle, so hard and depressing it is to have to fight with friends. In this case, one doesn’t want to say one word too many or form a sentence too sharply, so that each makes clear the desire and intention to aver only that which the conscience calls one to, and yet does not hurt the one to whom we are so bound with strong connections.

Today I must fight with one of my best and oldest friends—with the Central Organization of German Citizens of Jewish Faith! In the previous issue of this newspaper appeared the April 10th resolution that the leadership of this association made with regards to the settlement of Palestine. It’s perhaps not redundant if I repeat the statement here:

“Were the settlement of Palestine nothing more than a large aid project, nothing would be said about the decision of the Central Organization not to support this work. However, the settlement of Palestine is the primary objective of nationalist Jewish politics. That is why its support is to be rejected. As long as the social and religious institutions of the German people and the religious and cultural needs of the German Jewry suffer bitterly and as long as countless homeless Jews need our immediate and urgent help, the Jewish sense of community and charity has many opportunities and the duty to work productively within German society.”

When shortly before the World War the Saverne Affair occurred, as down below in Alsace the most extreme and unsympathetic representatives of Prussian militarism trampled on the freedom and equal rights of the Alsatian people, our current Chancellor, Fehrenbach, said in a masterful speech in the Reichstag, that the recent improvement in the attitude and position of the Alsatians toward the Reich was over and done with. He, Fehrenbach, when he heard of the goings on in Saverne and their impact, called out in consternation, “Tatters, only tatters!”
“Only tatters” … that is how many of us feel in the face of the Central Organization’s resolution. There was in the last few months—as I had once before expressed in these pages—a feeling of hopefulness developing.

The Zionists had moved on beyond their deep disappointment. With the high hopes, with triumphant celebrations, they had welcomed that the English Commonwealth had taken over the Palestinian Mandate from the Turkish empire and immediately started the process of creating a national homeland for the Jews. It seemed then that all the Zionist dreams were coming to fruition, and that we who had opposed the Zionist ideology were being swept aside.

But then a frost came into the spring nights. The text of the law made it clear that the English government had worked out the justification for their Palestinian Mandate. And the text was very far from allowing the Jews any significant influence on the governance and administration of the country, and carefully and fearfully defined parity of the national and political rights of the non-Jewish inhabitants of the country. It does not differ from the principles—reasonable and democratic—according to which the culturally progressive English colonies are governed so that it should be apparent to the whole world, what is obvious to sober judges of English ways and history, that England has no intention of seeing this country as anything other than a means to expand the sphere of influence for British statecraft and administrative power—and an infinitely valuable protection of its flank position in the Orient.

More disappointments came. The more one got to know the country, the clearer it became that mass settlement would require a very long time and a huge amount of money, which England expects the Jews to fund. Also to consider is the resistance offered by the Arabs, which was underestimated thanks to the wily Emir Faisal’s fine speeches two years ago, but which is quite strong and touch and requires the greatest care and caution. And finally, the American Zionists are not agreed with the continental Zionists, especially not with the Germans. The Americans with their clever insight had expected the afore-mentioned difficulties. They also have the example before them of the bitter experiences of the German-Americans during the World War as a warning not to let themselves get pushed into a national conflict. And so they have made as a condition of their participation (which is essential) that any national element in the movement be de-emphasized in favor of the social, practical aspects of colonization which would make it easier for all Jews to participate in the work in Palestine.

The German Zionists did not agree with this position. They learned, they adapted. Their tone, which every visitor to their meetings and every reader of their press has found to be bitter and embittering for decades, mildly put, began to gradually change.

On our non-Zionist side, tendencies were developing that were somewhat receptive and made it easier for the Zionists to change their approach. That Jewish youth was participating more actively, more deeply in religious life, in Jewish literature, and Jewish history, also increased their love of the land which was once the homeland of our people but also of our faith. The hate of others bonded us more tightly together and made it the order of the day that despite our differences we come together to defend against the enemy and work together toward strengthening Judaism. A new attitude was developing. It appeared everywhere. A few weeks ago at a Berlin lecture, the staunch fighter for liberalism, a man of faultless German conviction as Rabbi Dr. Baeck called for all Jews to participate in the establishment of a new Palestine. In Breslau, the chairman of the Central Organization, Hirschberg, a man who has no understanding for Zionist leanings, expressed the same sentiment. But none has expressed so clearly our right and our duty to build up Palestine as a man, who has done so much for the Jews of the East as for the German-Jewish colonization and educational work in the Orient, who always sided with universal Judaism and against any exaggerated Zionist aspirations and whose German conviction not even Dr. Naumann could doubt—I am referring to Dr. Paul Nathan.
In an essay, “The Jewish-national homeland in Palestine” (the author also placed the title in quotation marks) in the March volume of the Central Organization Journal he said unequivocally:

“The position of the various Jewish parties take towards each other, especially the position of the Zionists toward the non-Zionists must change fundamentally; at least it should change fundamentally. The differences that separate the one from the other have lost any meaning for the foreseeable future, and according to these principles: cessat causa, cessat effectus [The cause ceasing, the effect must cease; see, we are approaching the moment when it might be possible for Judaism to present a unified front.”

He based his belief, which was at once a wish and an admonition, on the English Mandate, the positive it contained, that it would allow Jews with national or religious longing for the holy land cultivate the fields, import and export goods, “pray at the Wailing Wall as once before,” and the negative, in that it would put an end to misguided Zionist hopes and bring the dreamers back down to earth and to fruitful, positive work. Nathan added in his clear and deliberate way:

“The new development, whether one greets it with exaggerated hopes, or regards it with negativity, places all Jews of the world, regardless of whether they are Zionists or not Zionists, in a completely changed position.

The hopeful Zionists now see their plans being constrained to a high degree. The non-Zionists however find themselves in a position that no longer offers them names for what they should call their opposition to the Zionists.

Palestine is firmly in the hands of England, which makes it highly possible that under English protection secure institutions can be created that benefit the Jews in that country both in intellectual and economic terms. Whereas before the war of 1914, all business in Palestine had to deal with arbitrary acts by the Turks, now English lawfulness will provide a dependable guarantee for the country’s development.

Today, the world Jewry can consider the Palestine question as it once did before the unfortunate and bitter strife with the Zionists. In politics, the best thing that one can do is in the face of new conditions is to forget, to thoroughly forget.

My circle of friends and I have worked on the Palestine project for a quarter of a century. We can now get back to work as only one thing has changed. In the place of constantly changing political conditions, which the Turkish regime engendered, there is, for the foreseeable future, a firmly grounded English rule.”

Naturally, Nathan warns pointedly against overestimating the possibility of development in this country that he knows so well, and against one other illusion—namely to have any exaggerated hope of German participation in building this country. He sees two reasons for our limited participation: because of our poverty and because the boundless misery of the Ukrainian Jews will consume all of our charity and willing aid. “Our sympathy, however,” concludes the beautiful essay, “stays with Palestine, where the collective contribution of all Jews looks attainable.”

The odd response to this heartfelt and compelling appeal is this resolution of the Central Organization’s board. Whoever reads the resolution reprinted above completely objectively must recoil from the iciness of the first sentence. Even if the settlement of Palestine were nothing more than a large social aid project—even then there shouldn’t be anything said against this project from the Central Organization’s perspective. The devil take it, shouldn’t there be something to said for it?

The second and third sentences deny support for the settlement of Palestine. Here I ask emphatically: Where does the board of the Central Organization get the right to undermine the Esra association, which has done great and beneficial things for the colonization of the holy land, and has just recently once again asked for the participation of all German Jews, and which consists of all Jewish directions while consistently highlighting that the development of Palestine is not the work of a single party?

The last sentence gives a kind of answer to this question, although not one that is satisfying on a human or scientific level. It states with bare words, “We are too poor, we can’t do anything.” Indeed, we have become very poor—we scarcely know or apprehend how poor. The need of our congregations, or our charitable institutions becomes ever clearer and more blatant. Paul Nathan in no way fails to recognize that, as we have seen, when he declares that the burden of caring for Palestine will have to rest mostly on the shoulders of the English and American Jews. But does that mean that we impoverished ones cannot or should not contribute our mites to this great work? That’s what the Central Organization’s board thinks, and Rabbi Dr. Jacob (whom I know as a redoubtable opposition fighter and therefor don’t like to see him on this path) agrees with them and gives the Zionists this deadly earnest advice, to come back “in fifty, or perhaps in thirty or twenty years.”

No, and a hundred times no! “Poverty gladly gives to poverty,” claims the lovely poem by Heinrich Seidel. In addition, a significant portion of German Jews still lives in relative ease, so that their ability to make donations need not be so limited. It’s only a matter of appealing to the Jewish heart and conscience of these men and women, of hammering it home, that an “I can’t” isn’t acceptable from them. Should they have such reservations on their overly sensitive consciences, as has Rabbi Dr. Jacob, that every Mark spent on Palestine is “forbidden displacement of capital abroad,” then we need only point to the certainly very patriotic German Catholics, who don’t hold back from paying millions and more every year as Peter’s Pence that to Rome, the center of their religion. Let’s not be more Catholic than the Pope! Let’s not be shamed by our fellow citizens who are no poorer than we are. We must protect ourselves from illusions about what we can achieve, but let’s not turn away from making our modest contribution to the significant work that the greater Jewish community is doing down there.

Naturally, we must emphatically make the point, that as Hirschberg said: an unconditional support of the Zionist development fund, Keren hayesod, does not come under consideration. We want to help Palestine develop, because the clamoring misery of our brothers in the East demands that no possibility of finding the homeless a refuge be overlooked. We want to do it because the immigration options in other countries are increasingly limited due to the prevalent prejudice and the growing economic difficulties, while this country has been declared through a formal act of justice for human rights to be a homeland for homeless Jews. We want to do it because the aroused longing of tens and hundreds of thousand victims for the land of their fathers, the land of religious promise. We don’t want our participation to fail, because we confidently hope that this country will someday be a warm source from which Jewish religious renewal will spring. We don’t however want to gather the building blocks for a Jewish national state, a Zionist castle in the clouds, and therefore we need assurances that the work that all parties should contribute to does not serve those objectives that we non-Zionist Jews today, after the fiasco of the boldest Jewish nationalist dreams, oppose even more heartily than in the years and decades of struggle that lie behind us.

It might not be easy to find such a compromise, but it will and must succeed, if we have the will to put our hands to building Palestine. That the board of the Central Organization is lacking this will (or at least the majority that pushed through this resolution) – that is the serious reproach we must make today.

We know, or at least apprehend: The concern that a number of the members who were present when the League of Nationalist German Jews that some real or apparent concessions to the Zionists were made influenced this resolution. But fear always makes for a poor advisor in such essential matters. And especially when the well-known “fear of one’s own courage” bears even slight resemblance…

The board of the Central Organization has spoken. Now it is up to the members to speak and to act. No one should take the comfortable approach and quit because they don’t like the new direction. Today’s minority must become tomorrow’s majority. Even if it takes until the day after tomorrow—our day will come! Because the future has never belonged to absolute negation!
by Erich Spitz

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. A description of the Liberal Association’s Winterfest concert and dance.


A sketch by Ino Gaβmann.
Synopsis: On a ship bound for New York, a wealthy Jewish industrialist from Baltimore is throwing an opulent supper party with his business associates. He meets the ship’s steward who tells him how ten poor Eastern Jewish families are preparing their seder, which evokes his own childhood memories of seders he used to celebrate when he was a poor orphan living with his Uncle in a Silesian town near the Polish border. Instead of attending his dinner party, he goes below deck to spend the night in prayer and song with the immigrants. Morning finds him renewed, having re-discovered his better self. He goes on to help his new friends make their way in the new world, and since then, always celebrates Passover.


Detmold. The court recently acquitted Captain Manderscheidt of having insulted Reichsminister Geβler by saying that as a Democrat he was influenced by Jews. The court found that no insult had taken place, merely a statement of fact because as everyone knows the German Democratic Party has a high percentage of Jewish members, therefore calling it a “Jewish Party” is not an insult.

Hamburg. At a meeting of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, Rabbi Dr. Jacob (Dortmund) spoke on “The Jews in Germany.” He focused on the history of Anti-Semitism in Germany. His speech was often interrupted by calls and comments from the audience. He ended with the statement, “All of us are the Fatherland. Germanness lies in the spirit, not in the blood.”

The Hagadah.

Lecture by the teacher, Robert Hirschfeld in the Jewish Liberal Youth Organization, Breslau.
Synopsis: The lecturer describes the contents of the Hagadah and the seder in a straight-forward manner. He then describes the Hagadah books themselves and how they were the only opportunity for Jewish artists to illustrate using a wide range of Biblical topics. These illustrations were often meant for children. In recent times, there were various attempts at appealing to modern interpretations, the most successful of these being written by Rabbi Dr. Seligmann from Frankfurt.

Local Events.

Introduction of the New Congregational Rabbi.

Dr. Hoffmann’s introduction took place the 20th of April. After Eduard Sachs warmly remembered Rabbi Dr. Rosenthal, who had passed away just several weeks ago, the head of the representatives, Professor Wohlauer recalled Dr. Hoffmann’s father’s contributions as the director of the Berlin rabbinical seminary. Dr. Vogelstein expressed his hope and desire that both colleagues would work side-by-side for the good of the whole community although they held opposing views on Jewish matters. After thanking for the praise given his father, Dr. Hoffmann promised that he would always be a true pastor of the orthodox community.

Exhibit of Jewish Religious Objects.

Synopsis: Rosa Freudenthal organized the exhibit that included objects used in synagogues as well as in the home. It featured modern artists, men and women, from all over Germany: Mendelssohn (Hellerau), Leo Horovitz (Frankfurt), Friedrich Adler (Hamburg), Wonka (Breslau), Rosa Weyl (Breslau), Mrs. Zadikow (Munich), Erna Selten (Breslau). Antique objects from Willy Falk’s private collection, from the Soldin synagogue and the Kirschstein (Nikolassee) were also on display.


The local Chapter of the League of Jewish Women will be once again sending children in need of rest and relaxation to the sun spa home in Segeberg from June 10 to July 15. Miss Cohn will be accepting registrations daily from 9 to 10 am until May 5 at 12 I Tauentzienstraβe.

Associations and Assemblies.

The Central Organization.

The Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith recently called a meeting dedicated to examining anti-Semitism. The originally scheduled speaker, Reverend Nithak-Stahn could not attend. In his place, Representative Staerck (Jena) spoke on the history of anti-Semitism. The meeting was well attended by government leaders and Christian fellow citizens. Staerck begins his history with the book of Esther to illustrate how anti-Semitism has been present since the earliest times. He showed how in Greco-Roman times, hatred of the Jews as “enemies of the truth” transformed into hatred of Jews as “enemies of Jesus Christ,” especially as the status as privileged slave traders led them to sell Christians. Spain was cited as the premier example of medieval anti-Semitism, despite the papacy being generally well-disposed toward Jews, which did not prevent priests from waging a battle between church and synagogue that even Luther joined. In the 18th and 19th century the French Revolution’s notions of freedom and equality eventually led the way to Jewish emancipation. By 1870, anti-Semitism had once again peaked with Adolf Stöcker leading the movement, the effects of which are still being felt today. He goes on to contrast the situation of Germany’s Jews with England’s where integration of even relatively conservative Jews has occurred. He ends with an appeal to the spirit of reconciliation for Jews to participate in the reconstruction of Germany.

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, April 15, 1921

On the Start of the School Year.

by Rabbi Dr. Sänger (Breslau).
Synopsis: Ever since the revolution, older children in particular have been challenging their parents with questions about whether they should continue taking religion classes in school. This questioning is a sign of the present time when the meaning of all things is being questioned. The study of religion stems from a sense of God’s real presence in life, which is something that parents instill in their children in addition to passing on their traditions, which is aided by religious education. In these difficult times, Judaism’s ethical and social laws can equip the young person with the means to be devout, feel fulfilled, and be a friend to mankind.

Dr. Sänger pleads with parents not to take their children out of religion classes. The congregation is making every effort to ensure that schools offer two hours a week of Jewish religious education by qualified instructors. No Jewish parent should be satisfied with a mere two hours, especially not when it comes to learning Hebrew. The congregation offers additional courses at two schools and one program for the training of women teachers of religious education.

Anti-Semitism, School, and Youth.

by Max Kosler, Elementary School Teacher (Dresden).
Synopsis: Kosler laments that unscrupulous politicians are sowing the seeds of hate with anti-Semitic propaganda among children and emphasizes the importance of combating lies. One such lie, that Jews avoided their military duty, can easily be countered with the facts. Jews served in the same proportion as all other sectors—20%–and were in consistent proportion among the fallen, the wounded, the decorated, and the imprisoned. One newspaper was fined 1000 marks for understating Jewish participation in the war.

All other anti-Semitic fairy tales can be as easily disproven. But in the education of children, the example of adults and teachers exert huge influence. They are teaching children to imagine Jews with evil intentions standing at almost every corner even though among 60 million Germans there are only a half million Jews.
The anti-Semites are aided by the naïve and uncritical who easily believe anything that is cloaked in nationalism. The youth fall in this category. And then there are others who willingly spread tales that they themselves do not believe if it somehow serves their cause—among this group are the businessmen who seek some competitive advantage by blaming Jews. They claim to be protecting themselves against the Eastern Jews, but in doing so, harm all Jews. Kosler reminds the reader that masses of Eastern Jews were forcibly brought to Germany to work in the munitions factories.

The government’s position towards Jews also colors our youth’s judgment. Should one allow a teacher to hold forth about the “Jewish government”? Even the far-right Germans know that having 3 Jewish ministers out of 160 does not make a government Jewish. Other examples of anti-Semitic fairy tales can be spun for industry and finance. Some anti-Semitic economists have calculated that 9/10s of the world’s capital is in Jewish hands.

They don’t spare the youngest children and use them to spread their literature and flyers. Kosler was recently given on a Jewish-Bolshevist plot revealed in an article that appeared in an ostensibly Russian paper founded by German anti-Semites. The Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith had offered 10,000 marks to the person who can prove the authenticity of the article. Unfortunately, the youth take this material for its word. The anti-Semites even resort to writing articles under Jewish pseudonyms that purport to offer insiders’ validation of Jewish conspiracies. Adults are naïve if they think that the youth does not read and absorb this material. Instead of passing out calendars with swastikas and Dinter’s books, the League of National German Youth should distribute von Oppeln-Bronikowski’s “Antisemitism?” or the Protestant theologian, Hermann Strack’s, writings.

The Founding of the League of National German Jews.

(reported by our Berlin representative)
On April 11, Dr. Max Naumann announced his new organization to the press founded on the principle that German Jews were a tribe, just like the other German tribes, and not a religious group. The tribe is always secondary to the nation. The organization welcomes all Germans of Jewish decent, including those who are no longer members of a Jewish congregation (dissidents) as long as they have not become members of a non-Jewish congregation. The reporter satirically states that he admires Naumann, who despite his lack of knowledge about Judaism, is establishing a Jewish organization. This new organization is a threat to the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith and the reporter warns these members about joining. “When the League of National German Jews declares, “The French, the English Jew is just a Frenchman or Englishman to the National German Jew.” Or “for the National German Jew the Eastern Jewish issue is not a Jewish issue but a German issue,” this attitude does not justly represent Judaism.” Naumann contradicts all religions when he claims that a national German feeling is never influenced by a feeling of internationalism. (signed B. W.) Following the article are reprints of the Naumann-Vorreuter correspondence that appeared in the April 1, 1921 issue.

Ophir, the Ancient Land of Gold.

by Dr. Manuel Joel (Breslau).
Synopsis: Dr. Manuel presents the case for placing the biblical land of Ophir in South Africa, near the Zambezi region and Zimbabwe, particularly as made by Karl Peters, the founder of Germany’s East African colony.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. The Free Jewish Adult Education School began its eighth trimester with a set of lectures on “Currents in Modern Judaism” covering topics such as the kabbalah, Spinoza, Zionism, and Jewish women and their significance in education.

Berlin. The Association for the Academy of Science of Judaism held a memorial honoring its founder, Dr. Leopold Landau. Dr. Täubler gave the speech that beautifully described the kind of man Leopold Landau was.

Berlin. The Conference of German Students of Jewish Faith held its annual meeting. This organization was founded to combat anti-Semitism among students. This meeting focused on the rise of anti-Semitism in German universities after the war. It was decided to continue with the methods for fighting anti-Semitism that had proven successful before the war, especially with regards to the current repression and denigration of Jewish women. These consist of using every opportunity to foster or awaken the awareness of the mistreatment of Jews by word and deed in all those with some level of insight. The current hateful atmosphere in the universities is felt all the more because of the large number of Jewish fraternity members died in combat, about which misleading statisticians have given the public a false picture.

Although the group did not deal with religious or similar issues within Judaism, it had long ago taken a negative position toward Zionism, a position which was re- affirmed at this meeting. Finally, the topic of physical fitness was addressed. Given the current circumstances, and that military service was no longer an option, sports were to play a larger part than before, starting with an event planned for the fall that should serve as the proof of achievements in this area.

Berlin. The association of alumnae of the Berlin teachers’ college held a general assembly after years of not meeting due to the circumstances. Members of the board are mentioned. At the meeting, the board was dissolved and new members appointed to a new structure. Decisions were made about using some of the funds from the Doris and Michael Holzman Fund to pay 800 Marks to two needy student teachers so that they could visit spas. It was agreed that widows and orphans of previous members should also have trips to spas paid for.

Braunschweig. In the State Assembly, the democratic representative, Rönneburg, declared that the anti-Semitic persecution at the higher institutions of learning must be countered most forcefully. Wearing of swastikas must be forbidden. As should the recruitment of anyone under the age of 17 into a political association. Bringing politics into schools is not to be tolerated. He was joined by Minister Oerter who decried the educators who fostered an anti-Semitic spirit.

Frankfurt a. M. Dr. Otto Driesen, whose reputation as a great pedagogue precedes him, is the new director of the Pilanthropin school, replacing the late Dr. Salo Adler. Driesen studied law and economics in Berlin, Paris, Heidelberg, and Strassburg. He travelled in France, Switzerland, Italy and Belgium after which he began teaching in Charlottenburg. During the war he led various wartime organizations, including the educational division of the charitable organization, “Vaterlandsdank.” His more important scientific works dealt with philological themes and the use of film and gramophones in classrooms and in scientific research.

On the Development of Palestine

Resolution of the Central Organization on the Palestine Question
The Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith shared the following resolution with us:
“Were the settlement of Palestine nothing more than a large aid project, nothing would be said about the decision of the Central Organization not to support this work. However, the settlement of Palestine is the primary objective of nationalist Jewish politics. That is why its support is to be rejected. As long as the social and religious institutions of the German people and the religious and cultural needs of the German Jewry suffer bitterly and as long as countless homeless Jews need our immediate and urgent help, the Jewish sense of community and charity has many opportunities and the duty to work productively within German society.”

The following letter by Rabbi Dr. Jacob of Dortmund appeared in the “Israelitisches Familienblatt” under the heading of “On the Development of Palestine” The letter was a response to an invitation to participate in the collection to assist Keren Hasseyod and addressed to the head of this organization.
Dear Sir,
After serious consideration, to my chagrin, I must ask you to step back from your intention to choose me to serve on the committee for Keren Hasseyod and the reconstruction of Palestine. I would not only not support the collection, but I would be obliged to oppose it. Since I foresee that my position will be questioned from several directions, allow me to explain my reasons. And since the issue interests many, I will share them so as to be more broadly evaluated.

As a religious Jew I love Zion and the holy land, the cradle of my religion, and thus have always been a friend to the reconstruction of Palestine. It could mark a blessed turn in the sorrowful history of Israel, if Palestine were to become a haven of peace for the persecuted and oppressed brothers of our people and thus a starting point for the religious renewal of mankind and Israel so that once again “from Zion came the law and from Jerusalem the word of God.” Even those who do not share this hope, regard this land as the birthplace and home of a large family, tied as it is with thousands of previous memories. Its sons are scattered throughout the world and have found their own lovely homes that they do not consider giving up. Still, they do not want their modest tribal home to decay; rather they piously want to maintain it. And, who knows, but it might serve as a refuge or old-age home for those who are less prosperous? Further, I realize that Zionism may be a political and spiritual necessity for Jews in some countries—and might perhaps become one for German Jews. But we have not yet reached that state. Germany is still our fatherland, which we do not think of giving up freely.

Two things prevent me from participating in supporting the planned collection at this time. 1) As German Jews we have to wage an exacerbated war on anti-Semitism in Germany that wants to take away our participation in the fatherland. Our existence, our rights, and our honor are at stake. Our enemies support this fight with huge material means, which is why we also need to dedicate our efforts and our money. 2) As German Jews we suffer most heavily from the collapse of our fatherland. The German people, to which we belong, struggles for air beneath exploitation by our enemy, the monstrous taxes, insane inflation. The misery is without bounds. When I think how millions decay here, how hundreds of thousands of children suffer from malnutrition and weakness, that tuberculosis claims hordes of lives, that hospitals, rest homes, orphanages face closure because of lack of means, that this misery might not be turned around even if we multiply our efforts, that for the same reason countless beneficial projects must be halted, that science dies, that our Jewish communities, which are supported almost completely by the annual taxes and are barely holding on when all they do is protect their rabbis and teachers from hunger and abject poverty, when I see the misery in my city and community on a daily basis—when I consider all of this, it’s impossible for me to rationalize collecting German money for an English-Jewish colony in Asia in these times. Even when I see it as my duty to help with the reconstruction of Palestine, I cannot, when another duty is more important to me. Since I cannot help all of the world’s misery go away, I do my part to relieve the misery I see before my eyes. Not the reconstruction of Palestine, but the reconstruction of Germany is what should concern German Jews. Let the Jews of England and America, the victorious countries (that are currently in London planning how they will enrich themselves on German poverty) participate in the reconstruction of Palestine! We German Jews are forced to stand aside this time due to our circumstances.

As praiseworthy as the reconstruction of Palestine is, since it took two thousand years, it can wait a bit longer. Now is just not the right time for us German Jews. Ask me again in fifty, maybe even thirty or twenty years, when with God’s help we are doing better once again. But in this moment it seems to me that every German Mark spent on the development of an English-Jewish colony in Asia drains our capital and shifts it abroad.

These reasons are of such overwhelming importance for me that it appears unnecessary to go into other considerations such as that we would just be working for English imperialism and Zionist nationalism.
Most Respectfully Yours, Dr. [Benno] Jacob

Local Events.


Synopsis: Dr. O. Fischer, the dean of the Law School of the Friederich Wilhelm University in Breslau wrote to correct the statement in the April 1, 1920 issue of this paper that the Law School sponsored the Lunapark event. This was an unofficial event and the invitations went out without the knowledge or consent of the faculty.

Jewish Theological Seminary. We have learned that the lectures of the deceased instructors Dr. Horovitz and Professor Brann, as well as the larger part of Dr. Lewkowitz’s classes must be newly assigned. Dr. Rabin (Frankfurt a. Main) has been selected to instruct Exegesis and History starting in the summer semester. The search for a new Seminary Rabbi is also in process.
Dr. Hoffmann’s inauguration as the congregation-rabbi will take place on Wednesday, April 20 at 5:30 in the representatives’ assembly hall.

Jewish-Liberal Youth Association. The Association’s communications committee notified us that in the future they will hold their meetings in various parts of the city to foster closer relationships among members.

Free Jewish High School Evening Social

On April 10, the free Jewish High School invited its sponsors and friends to an evening social in the Great Hall of the Lessing Lodge before it closed its doors for the mid-year break. Dr. Wallerstein from the Stadttheater opened the evening’s full program(which was at times marred by being somewhat inappropriate) by playing Lewandowski’s “Ma-tamou” on the harmonium. Dr. Lewskowitz made a short speech in which he portrayed the Jewish High School as a place where all practices could work together, as a platform for the common goal of fostering love and pride for Judaism. The first part of the program was dedicated to music with performances by Mrs. Ochs-Pfahl of the Stadttheater, Mr. Wallerstein, and Mr. Peiser. These artists’ names alone ensured the success that was evident by the audience’s applause. This was followed by a tea break which was equally appreciated. The second part of the program featured a world premier of Herman Heijermans’“Ahasver.” Mrs. Ochs-Pfahl sang as a prelude to the one-act play a Sabbath song with much expression. The lyrical, peaceful character of the song contrasted strangely with the dramatic, dark content of the play. The play’s direction lay in the capable hands of Mr. Arnfeld, who shared playing the main roles with Mrs. Ludwig-Blum and Mr. Böhm (all from the Lobetheater). The portrayal of the Jewish milieu, for which the Dutch poet is mainly known and the significance of the one-act play, “Ahasver,” was well preserved. That was largely thanks to Mr. Arnfeld who imbued his Kralik with the typical speech, appearance and gestures of the Jewish father: the pride in his only much-loved son, the despair that expressed itself in the terrible curse he laid upon this wayward son. The interpretation affected all in the audience, as evidenced by their silence at first, then loud applause and calls, unfortunately! (by Betty Foerder, university student)

Orchestral Matinee

Synopsis: The “Free Association for Classical Music” sponsored a concert last Sunday. Mr. Schönfeld was the director, Mr. Trautner played piano, and Kurt Nellhaus was the very young and very talented guest conductor.

Associations and Assemblies.

Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith.

Invites the public to a lecture by the well-known Reverend Nithak-Stahn of Berlin on “Anti-Semitism and Humanity” followed by an open discussion.

The Duties of the German Jewry

In the Union to Further the Interests of Breslau’s Synagogue Congregations, the lawyer, Mr. Hirschberg, spoke on the “Duties of the German Jewry,” emphasizing that after the collapse of Germany England had taken over the mandate to establish a national homeland for Jews in Palestine. With that, the rest of the world’s Jews has a great responsibility to support these efforts, especially given how difficult the colonization will be due to the hostility of the Arabs. The first step to meeting this responsibility is to properly instruct the youth in their religion and to train teachers who can improve the religious education. The larger congregations are certainly in a position to help the smaller ones through financial means. In addition, the colonization would be further supported by training the youth to be farmers and craftsmen. A heated discussion followed in which the lawyer Jacobsohn expressed his skepticism over the success of Palestine since its governor, Herbert Samuel, was an outspoken opponent of Zionism. The banker Loewy stressed that the new Zionist state should be led by Jewish law and strict religiosity—he had been disappointed by how little a role religion played in the recent assembly of German-Jewish communities in Berlin since he was under the impression that the goal of Augdas Yisroel was to re-awaken an interest in the Torah.

Mr. Hirschberg agreed with Mr. Jacobsohn on many points. He also acknowledged that Mr. Loewy was right about many things but that he had to disagree with him that the fostering of broader interest in the Torah was the responsibility Agudas Yisroel alone—he saw that as the responsibility of all religious Jewish parties.

Family Announcements

Engagements: Suse Schidlower (Breslau) and Richard Weiβenberg (Schweidnitz); Friedel Tarrasch (Groβ-Wartenberg) with Ernst Doβmar (Berlin); Käte Münzerhelberger (Charlottenburg) and Willi Mosle (Leipzig); Lotte Krieg (Breslau) and Josef Hirschberg (Breslau); Alice Radlauer (Breslau) and Bruno Bensch (Breslau); Ellen Schalscha (Gera, Reuβ) and Siegfried Leipziger (Breslau); Hertha Linker (Breslau) and Gustav Krause (Czenstochau); Erika Nelken (Breslau) and Carl Muschel (Breslau); Jenny Schimek (Breslau) and Harry Brauer (Breslau).

Marriages: Julian Matthias and Käthe Tyrrasch (Nreslau); Lawyer Dr. Alfred Wolff and Hilde Weiβ (Oppeln); Martin Wiener and Margarete Simon (Breslau).

Births: Son: Julius Abraham and Rosel, née Riesenfeld (Charlottenburg); Albert Schragenheim and Claire, née Broh (Zoppot).
Daughter: Bernhard Böhm and Cläre, née Vogel (Breslau); Wilhelm Blumenfeld and Erna, née Bremer (Lauban).

Deaths: Oscar Heimann (Berlin); Adolf Frey (Breslau); Arthur Kaβriel (Breslau); Louis Siedner (Breslau), Berta Schachtel, née Weiβ (Breslau); Lina Friedner (Breslau); Mathilde Heilborn, née Aufrichtig (Breslau); Lisbeth Lust (Berlin); Martin Aufrichtig (Breslau).

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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, April 8, 1921

Pacifism and Judaism.

by Dr. Walter Brinitzer (Chemnitz).
A French war song says: “Let us hate and kill, have no other safety than hate, hate is the prize.”
The sixth commandment orders: You shall not kill. The sixth commandment has lifted its voice through millennia, but how few who hold the fate of millions of people in their power have heard it.
War has been the watchword, hatred and killing. How does Judaism stand toward war and peace?
I. Judaism and War
Synopsis: Brinitzer cites from the Bible and the Talmud to support the position that Judaism rejects war as immoral and sinful and calls upon mankind to pursue peace.

II. War and Reality
Is war avoidable? The state only exists in opposition to other, external powers. If the state however is based on justice (Rechtstaat) in contrast to a national state, then it can better project its external power. The state’s duty is to establish the conditions under which its citizens can live and work well together. However, if one were to do away with states in order to do away with these constantly opposing powers, all cultural development would cease.

In this universal state, man would no longer be free because the state would be an absolute despot. Universalism is only feasible once cultural development has reached its apex in the messianic time. For now, similarities and differences in nature, geology, climate, peoples give rise to many individual states. Without a power that exists over the states, the only way to resolve conflicts is through might. War seems to be a natural outcome of the concept of the state.

III. Pacifism and Judaism.
We are always threatened by the possibility of war while its immorality is always apparent. This conflict gives rise to pacifism, which is a thoroughly Jewish-ethical concept with its roots in the messianic idea of peace and the perfection of humanity. Thus, peace does not conflict with love of one’s country, rather it represents its perfection. War is caused by hatred of other peoples and states’ loss of power. Should the ideal of pacifism be realized, there must be some guarantees that eradicate these conditions. There are both moral and legal guarantees. The ethical ones consist of furthering love of peace amongst people and the legal one consists of international courts whose aim is to avoid violent conflicts.

True peace is not created by treaties but by calling forth and nurturing peaceful attitudes, especially when it comes to dealings with other peoples. Science, art, and global business are examples where peoples interact peacefully.

Both Judaism and Christianity have emphasized love of peace. Bernitzer suspects that the German nationalist warmongers who often fall in with anti-Semites. He cites the pope, the Anglican church, the Lutheran churches of Alsace, and Kant as examples of advancing the cause of peace.

As for the legal guarantee, Bernitzer envisions a system of courts that does not force individual states to submit to the power of a universal body; rather these courts objectively and faithfully hand down decisions based on the commonalities shared by states. The current civil court system also replaced an older system based on blood vengeance. This new international court system could have the same effect. Another example is the Hague Convention. Bernitzer believes that wars would no longer result from legal conflicts were such a court system to exist. However, he concedes that animosity is also caused by expansionism or some other need required for its progress. But even here, the courts could assist in finding a solution after objectively weighing the interests.
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On the Passing of Dr. S. Horovitz.

by Dr. [Dagobert] Nellhaus (Rybnik, Upper Silesia)
Obituary for Seminarrabbiner Dr. Saul Horwitz, who had taught at the Jewish Theological Seminary for 25 years.

A New Achievement by Euphorion Verlag

A review of the bibliophile edition of the “Klagelieder des Jeremias” opens with acknowledgement of Jewish contributions to contemporary German arts in the areas of theater and publishing, notwithstanding the dire circumstances in which Germany finds itself. The review includes a description of the new edition, of which only 100 copies have been made. The reviewer anticipates that these will all be purchased by foreigners who have more resources. The text is a translation by the renowned biblical translator, Lazarus Goldschmidt.
The illustrations are by William Schocken. The review was written by Dr. Ludwig Davidsohn.

Aid Society of German Jews.

Report from the General Assembly.
by our Berlin correspondent
Synopsis: The conference was held under the leadership of James Simon, chair of the Aid Society of German Jews. After business affairs were attended to, Dr. Bernhard Kahn (director of the Bund) reported on the Aid Society’s wartime activities. “The work of the aid societies from New York and San Francisco in Astrakhan and Odessa is better known and more appreciated than the work done in Frankfurt am Main, Cologne, or Munich.”
When war broke out the Aid Society formed a committee to oversee assistance to some 70,000 Russian emigrants stranded in Germany. To date, these efforts have cost 2.75 million marks. These efforts gained recognition from the German government and military as well as from the enemy Russian government and neutral states. However, as a the eastern regions became occupied, the activity of the Aid Society increased immensely as it spent 7 million marks on aid for Eastern Jews and was able to raise another 70 million marks, which included donations from the American aid committees. The Aid Society also set up a clearinghouse for those seeking relatives, used even by non-Jews, foreign embassies, and the Red Cross. On a single day, the Aid Society received 2,300 letters.
In addition to these war efforts, the Aid Society kept up with its educational mission. It sponsored 50 institutions with 6700 students, 3,000 of which were in Palestine and Asiatic Turkey. When the war started it had to cease its activities in many countries, but institutes in Palestine and Turkey thrived their conquest. The cost of maintaining the schools during the war was 3 million marks. Now the Aid Society has given up its educational work and is focusing all its resources on aiding Eastern Jews who have it so much harder now than during the war—pogroms in Poland and almost daily pogroms in Ukraine have affected at least 1,000 towns resulting in the murder or maiming of 150,000 Jews of all ages. Military administrators expelled circa 750,000 Lithuanian and Latvian Jews to Russia. Of these displaced persons no more than 80,000 are in Germany, according to Paul Nathan, as a result of negotiations with Hindenburg after the occupation of Poland. The Aid Society participated in these negotiations. Two questions were asked:
1. How can one transport the greatest number of people overseas in order to evacuate the area?
2. How can people be brought to Germany to work in munitions factories?

To kick out these Eastern Jews who were forcibly brought to Germany and send them back into a veritable hell is inhumane. No government in Germany has ever planned such a thing. Only anti-Semites and German-national Jews that follow Dr. Naumann would demand this. The Aid Society has always maintained a German and patriotic perspective, which does not preclude humaneness.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. The American Jewish organizations report that immigrants who want to enter the United States and now have difficulties with immigration services are being misled by unscrupulous agents to go to Mexico instead of waiting for legal resolution of their issues.

These unfortunate immigrants, who are advised by these agents to take this misguided step find themselves in the most difficult circumstances. The border between Mexico and the United States is most strictly guarded, so that there is no possibility of slipping into the United States. Countless individuals who have attempted this have been interned in the American state of Texas and now await considerable punishment and deportation. Others have been sent back to Mexico and are in the worst of circumstances. Through their ignorance they have now lost every opportunity to go to America.

Naturally, no Jewish organization would condone illegal immigration of this or any other kind. However, the emigrants must be warned against following the promises of unprincipled agents who are only interested in capitalizing on the understandable impatience and misery of the emigrants and do not care what becomes of those who so naively entrusted themselves to them.

It must always be pointed out that any attempt to enter the United States without proper passports and papers will lead to lasting misery.

Berlin. Memorial for Professor Louis Lewandoski.
A concert commemorating Louis Lewandoski’s, the creator of modern synagogal music, hundredth anniversary of his birth was extremely well attended and by members of all Jewish tendencies. The performers hailed from the best of Berlin’s musical circles—Dr. James Simon (piano), Professor Dessau (violin) and Erwel Stegmann (cello). Rabbi Dr. Hochfeld delivered the memorial address which emphasized Lewandoski’s influence in shaping the modern German synagogue service. The concert concluded with Lewandoski’s religious compositions, performed by the choir of the Fasanenstraβe synagogue led by chief cantor Davidsohn. Vera Goldberg and Agnes Laibach performed soprano solos. The organist was Otto Levy.

Magdeburg. Dr. Otto Landsberg, previously Reich Minister of Justice and now representing Germany in Brussels, reports on his journey to observe the Upper Silesian vote. He praises the authorities’ organization skills for being able to shuttle Upper Silesians from all over Germany for the vote and the hospitality of the locals. “German-nationalists should never doubt that Jews can’t feel German–they came in droves to cast their votes for their fatherland. Not one of them thought to disprove stupid prejudices through their votes; they smiled pityingly at the swastikas with which especially tactful volunteers of the homeland protection service had decorated their chests… Their only thought was to save their homeland and Germany from their downfall.

Frankfurt a. M. Fatherland and the German Jews. Ismar Freund lectured on the importance of the German fatherland to German Jews. He began with a review of Rome’s persecutions of Christians and the persecution of Jews in the middle ages before examining the roots and nature of the concept of a Jewish people. With regards to Germany in particular, German Jews regard it as the land of their forefathers since the time of Roman colonization and through common religious foundation feel a kinship with the Christian view of “Germanness.”
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Emden. The Jewish school year closed with an impressive ceremony that also served as a farewell to Mr. Selig, who had taught at the school for 32 years. State Rabbi Dr. Hoffmann was the main speaker.

Local Events.

Memorial for Rabbi Prof. Dr. Guttmann.

A small group gathered at Rabbi Guttmann’s grave for a simple yet impressive ceremony to unveil the headstone. Head cantor Cerini sang, “Was ist der Mensch?” and chair of the council Goldfeld presented the memorial to the family. Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein spoke of Guttmann’s accomplishments and virtues. The cantor then sang the El mole rachamim and the service closed with the Kaddish.

The Free Jewish High School will stage the premiere of Heyjermann’s one-act play, “Ahasver.”

Exhibition of modern Jewish ceremonial objects will be hosted by Rosa Freudenthal.


Jettka Finkenstein Jubilee Concert
To celebrate her forty years as a mezzo-soprano and singing teacher, Jettka Finkenstein and her students sang a selection of Lieder, arias, and choral works. The singers were Friedrich Taubert, Albert Wesel, Elli Rosa, Erna Bauer, Hertha Gärtner, Friede Paege-Bohn, Else Daniel-Nolte, and Hilde Hoffmann.

Family Announcements

Engagements: Hilde Schwarz with Max Sklarz (Breslau)
Marriages: Adolf Levin with Pine Rosengarten (Berlin); Ismar Hoffmann with Helena Böhm (Breslau); Max Schüftan with Grete Grünpeter (Breslau); Counselor Dr. Friedrich Weiβ with Helene Katz (Nikolai).
Births: Son: Fritz Haberkorn and Elfriede nee Zimmer (Breslau); Kurt Panofsky and Betty nee Schindler (Sohrau, Upper Silesia).
Daughter: Julius Loewenhardt and Dora nee Kamny (Lublinitz).
Deaths: Eduard Jacobwitz (Breslau); David Janower (Breslau); Dr. Saul Horovitz (Breslau); Alexander Dzialoskinski (Breslau); Regina Hammerschlag nee Leubuscher (Breslau).
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Jewish Liberal Newspaper, April 1, 1921

Liberalism and Orthodoxy.

by Rabbi Dr. Sigfrid Behrens (Göttingen).

Partial translation: The time of religious struggle, whose center was the Breslau congregation, seems to be over, having given way to preoccupation with the difficulties of the present time. In public Jewish life, there is rarely friction between liberals and the orthodox. The worries over Jewish existence, the need to defend ourselves, and common humanitarian work have neutralized partisanship. We avoid religious questions, which is leading to some stagnation in our spiritual, religious life. We have reached a phase of disinterest. However, smaller orthodox groups and the Zionists have more energy, are ready to sacrifice, and have set lofty goals. Liberalism has receded into the background. Is it lacking the eagerness and motivation of the smaller groups? Liberalism simply doesn’t function by means of the slogan or sensationalism. Mysticism and the pain caused by every break with tradition are foreign to it because it addresses the thinking person. Judaism has room for all forms; it relies on all parties to achieve its goals. We guard against a majority rule and one-sidedness that would make us ignore the wishes and needs of the smaller groups. We are devoted to the Jewish religion, its instruction and its practice. The Hebrew language is just as holy and essential as the love of the land of our forefathers. We are not just interested in an academic profession of faith—we aim to develop the whole person.

We must find time to reconnect with ourselves, to be prepared to make sacrifices for our choice of liberal Judaism. We must find the deeper meaning of Sabbath, holy days, religious observations and customs. All this would be for naught if we did not inspire the youth for they are the future of Judaism, as all groups and parties recognize. I do not think I am mistaken about the gravity of the present hour.

Every movement needs a spiritual intensity, needs personalities who serve as models, who motivate, and who can lead the way to the promised land. The liberal communities are honor bound to support their clergy and administrators financially, especially the wealthier ones. Hic Rhodus, hic salta! Show us what you can do!

On the National-German Jew.

[An exchange of letters among the chief editor of the “Kölnische Zeitung,” Mrs. H. Vorreuter (Dortmund), and Dr. Max Naumann, author of an essay on the national-German Jew.] Vorreuter is critical of Naumann’s attempt to enlighten the Germans, a partially barbaric and anti-Semitic people, about Jewish thought. Germany’s enemies would like nothing more than to justify the maltreatment of the Germans. She argues that it’s not race, but religion and a shared history of suffering that ties Jews together. Whosoever sees blood as the anchor of identity is just as much of a materialist as the anti-Semites. On speaks of animals in terms of race; of people one should speak of their intellectual makeup. Perhaps Naumann does not realize that the 250,000 Jews in the Central Association are regarded as “assimilators” by Zionists. National-German Jews want to deny their origins. German liberal Jews however want to keep their ethical-religious individuality, the sense of family, and the Jewish concept of charitable work.

Vorreuter questions both concepts of race and nationality. She points out the Germans who are not deluded by racial theories understand that Germans are a mixture of peoples, including Jews. Jews are part of the unified German group within the greater white race. It is painful to see how anti-Semitism is nurtured, even among intellectuals. She cites Adolf von Harnack as justified in noting that a follower of Jesus would do far better to follow the Talmud or Jewish ethical writings which are closer to Jesus than the Germanic, Aryan Christian theologians.

As Jews, one must identify with the Eastern Jews, even with the Bolshevik Jews, even though they are “asocial” elements. Indeed, not just Polish Jews, but Polish Catholics and Protestants are not as culturally developed [as Germans].

She concludes that there is no middle ground, as Naumann argues, but only a sharp delineation between the national Jew and the Jewish German. Naumann’s reponse to her includes his opposition to the importation of people from the East, be they Jewish or Slavic. He defends the right of Jews to flee their deplorable conditions, but he cannot condone the mass immigration to Germany because of the harm it can do to the country. In her subsequent letter, Vorreuter reminds Naumann that the Versailles Treaty is to blame for the mass immigration and that Germany should respond with humanity. She also notes that many of the Easterners now in Germany had been forcibly brought to work in factories to allow German men to become soldiers. And that the French forced 10,000 Alsatian Jews to move to Germany. The remainder of her response decries the anti-Semitism that in her eyes is defaming the nation of enlightenment and humanity that freed their ancestors from the ghetto. She ends her letter by quoting a verse from Heinrich Heine’s “Nachtgedanken”:
Germany endures,
it is a heartily healthy country!
With its oaks, its linden trees
I will always find it again.
[“If I think of Germany in the night,” translation by Sedulia Scott, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License.]

p. 2

Louis Lewandowski

(On his one-hundredth birthday)
Partial translation: Lewandoski was born 100 years ago on April 3, in Wreschen, Posen [now Września, Poland], becoming one of the most significant reformers of synagogal music. He followed in the footsteps of Vienna’s great synagogal composer, Salomon Sulzer, who had been active two decades earlier than Lewandowski and whose greatest contribution was the monumental “Schir Zion.”

Both of Lewandoski’s parents came from rabbinical families, though their present circumstances were such that young Louis and his four brothers had to earn a living early on. All served as assistant cantors, though it was Louis’s talent that stood out. Aged twelve, he left home for Berlin where he attended high school and was sponsored by Dr. Baruch Auerbach. He also became a soloist in the Old Synagogue where he drew the attention of Alexander Mendelssohn, grandson of Moses Mendelssohn. After hearing Louis play violin and piano, Alexander convinced him to dedicate himself to music. He studied music theory and acoustics at the University of Berlin, but his real wish was to attend the Hochschule for Music, which at the time did not allow Jews. He insisted however on taking the entrance exam, and through Mendelssohn’s support was able to break through the racial barrier and become the first Jewish student to enroll. He was well accepted by his instructors, and won prizes for his compositions. In 1856 he made his first public appearance as conductor for the Kroll opera theater. After a long illness, he turned from secular music to religious song. His congregation sent him to Vienna to study under Sulzer. It was under Sulzer’s influence that he composed his significant work, “Kol riunats und T’sillah.” On his 25th anniversary, he said of the essence of Jewish synagogal song: “The musical expression of our Geberweise is a sacred inheritance, created without musical education, without critical study; it is only the outpouring of the holiest inspiration. And even if we have forgotten the language of our fathers, we can regain our understanding of their and our magnificent tones and continue to maintain and cultivate them. Who cannot fail but to find in them the history of our people!”
Lewandowski understood the significance of prayer in the service, so he focused on the recitative, which is a challenging art form when performed without instrumental accompaniment. He also limited his choral arrangements to two voices, also without accompaniment. These minimalist forms saw his greatest accomplishments.

In 1866 Lewandowski was called to the New Synagogue where he composed his second great work, a four-part chorale with organ, “Todah w’simro.” Originally composed for the Old Synagogue, he now added the organ and worked in the traditional melodies of the Kol Nidre, the “Kaddish “ for “Tal and Geschem” (the prayer for dewfall and rain), without losing the singing’s individuality. Lewandowski’s songs that are so intertwined with the Hebrew text will always hold their value, but so will his countless German psalms keep their deep religious spirit. Eighteen of these were printed and dedicated to King Ludwig II of Bavaria. His arrangements of old Hebrew melodies for chorus, song, and organ are masterful inventions and stand out for their deep religious sensibility and great simplicity. Of special note is his opus 34, “Schapsodie hebraique for piano” that he dedicated to the important Russian pianist and composer, Arthur Rubenstein. He died on February 3, 1894 shortly after retiring. –Nannie Stern.[The article lists other significant works and describes the honors he received at his 50th anniversary, which included receiving the honorary title “Professor of Music” to acknowledge his contribution as teacher, with many students active as musical directors for important congregations.]


The Plight of Students and Anti-Semitism.

by Counselor and Notary Foerder (Breslau)
Synopsis: Foerder responds to the letters published in the previous issue (March 24, 1921) on the topic of providing financial support for students in light of their anti-Semitism. He points out that the faculty does not hesitate to ask Jews to contribute funds to this cause, but is far too quiet when it comes to opposing anti-Semitism at the university.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. The “Vossische Zeitung” reported on a conference held by Sir Herbert Samuel in Palestine to elect rabbinical leadership and religious court (beth din).

Berlin. The well-known human-rights activist, Dr. Wehberg, who opposed the anti-Semitic stance of the Eisenach Resolutions was expelled from his fraternity, the “Marchia.”

Halle. The anti-Semitic “Hallesche Zeitung” blamed Jews for the recent regionalinsurrection by communists.

From the Province.

Völkisch Youth Formation.

Suhrau, Silesia. A student named Knobel founded a youth organization called “Jungsturm” whose symbol is the swastika. One of their outings led them by the Jewish cemetery where their leaders instructed them to spit three times. As a result, the organization was banned as was wearing a swastika.

Local Events.

Representatives Assembly.

The meeting opened with a remembrance of the recently deceased Rabbi Dr. Rosenthal. In a three-hour session the representatives addressed 28 proposals and one urgent request. They addressed the upkeep of graves, donations to synagogues, social welfare, and the convalescent hospital. They increased the amount set aside for matzoh, discussed fees paid for weddings and the voting rights of the congregations’ employees. The topic that met with the most interest was the increase of salaries, which would now amount to over 100,000 marks. The assembly approved joining the Central Organization of German Jews. 1,000 marks were given to the Jewish labor board and 1,000 marks earmarked for helping to feed Jewish refugees from the east.
On Sunday, March 27, girls’ confirmation was held in the New Synagogue. The lovely, impressive ceremony was uplifting; every place in the synagogue was taken. After introductory organ music, Rabbi Dr. Sänger gave a sermon that touched the heart in which he reminded the six girls of their duties to their faith community. Then the girls professed their faith and received a prayer book from Dr. Sänger. The ceremony concluded with the hymn, “Die Himmel rühmen des Ewigen Ehre.“ [„Die Ehre Gottes aus der Natur” by Ludwig van Beethoven]

Jettka Finkenstein.

Jettka Finkenstein celebrated her fortieth jubilee as a performer and singing teacher on April 3, 1921. Her last public performance was in 1906. Since then she has dedicated her time and energy to teaching singing. The article describes how she studied piano, much against her parents’ wishes. After a particularly fine rendition of a Mendelssohn Lied, she gained entrance to the royal high school for music where she began her training as a mezzosoprano under Frau Professor Schultzen von Asten, Professor Gustav Engel, and Professor Joachim. She sang in the Darmstadt area for 9 years and even performed for Queen Victoria. She worked in London, Paris, and Berlin, finally settling in Breslau when she married the pianist and composer, Benno Pulvermacher, and where they founded a singing school.

p. 4

A Max Heinzel Evening.

The Breslau reciter, Thekla Eisner, staged an evening of Max Heinzel’s Silesian poetry and songs to benefit his daughter. Heinzel’s work was complemented by songs by Paul Mittmann and Franz Wagner and poems by Philo vom Walde and Hermann Bach. Thekla Eisner recited poetry in Silesian dialect and High German. The songs were sung by Margarete Hoffmann and Hans Hielscher and accompanied by Lotte Hansen.


Synopsis: Die Schöpfung. A review of the Breslau orchestra’s performance of Haydn’s work, conducted by Professor Dohrn. Soloists were Mrs. Hirt, Mr. Abendroth, and Mr. Depser. The pianist was Herr Czerny.

Associations and Assemblies.

Association for Jewish History and Literature.

On March 22, Rabbi Dr. Kober (Cologne) spoke about “The Rhine in Jewish History.” Jewish history on the Rhine began in 321 A.D. with a reference to the respected Jewish community of Cologne in an edict by Emperor Constantine. Other cities along the Rhine such as Worms, Mainz, Trier, and Speyer had Jewish citizens in the third century. Up until the 10th century Jewish life played itself out in the background until the arrival of Messianism from the east that inspired many to undertake pilgrimages to Palestine.

Until the crusades, Jewish rights were uncontested. In fact, Bishop Rüdiger Huozmann of Speyer could think of no better way to improve his city’s status than by offering Jews residences and privileges. Emperor Heinrich IV confirmed Jewish rights and privileges. However, the crusades brought difficult times to the Rhine’s Jewish communities. The years 1348-1350 saw terrible persecutions and for decades afterwards, Jews were expelled from the large cities to the smaller ones. After 400 years the French revolution brought citizenship and freedom to the Jews but they struggled for equal rights for most of the 19th century.

Dr. Kober concluded his talk with an interesting account of a Rhine wedding in the 15th century.

Bar mitzvahs at the Old Synagogue on April 2, 1921:
Günther Geβler, father Max G., Alsenstraβe 14; Heinz Roland Fränkel, father Leopold F., Lessingstraβe 12; Walther Nathan Lewy, father Dentist Georg L., Gartenstraβe 51.

Announcements and Advertisements

Urgent Request for Help!

The serious situation in which our association finds itself forces us to issue this public call for help. The growing unemployment in Germany on the one hand and on the other the peace treaty between Poland and Russia are causing a large emigration of Eastern Jews that had fled to Germany. Their route through Upper Siliesa, the main border crossing between Germany and Poland, is currently closed. The only open passage is through Breslau. Countless emigrants, who are without any resources, must be cared for and helped along by us on a daily basis. And now Passover is at hand. Last Passover our association had a Passover table for over 200 refugees. This year this number will be significantly larger. These activities require great sums of money. The resources available to us are far from sufficient to cover these great tasks.

That is why we turn to all Jews who are moved by the great misery of the fleeing and returning Eastern Jews with an urgent request to support us with generous donations. -–The Association of Eastern Jews.

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