On the Feast of Weeks [Shavuot]
by Rabbi Dr. Salomonski, Frankfurt (Oder)
Just acknowledging the 10 commandments is not equivalent to a living Judaism. We have no intention to diminish these, which have now become all of humanity’s. Even the fourth commandment, the observation of Sabbath, which might be considered the most Jewish of all of them, doesn’t make us Jews. May the ten commandments not be just something handed down by tradition, but something that is always newly revealed.
There are enemies that seek the annihilation of Judaism. It is hard to fight against them because their intentions are good but they do evil. Judaic teaching stipulates one God and one unified Israel. Anyone who believes otherwise mistakes their mission or has fallen into fake-Judaism, regardless of their religious or political beliefs. Our unity only exists in the eyes of the outside. We must see to it that the children of Israel truly are committed to brotherly ways.
All other holidays except for Shavuot have rituals and symbols: Matzoh, huts, Shofar, and fasting. Perhaps this is where revelation comes in because of the very interior nature of our knowing these commandments.
The man who leaves the community because he could not become its representative is not an isolated case. The one that cannot just resign but must also threaten conflict and confusion and make extraordinary demands when things don’t go his way, is a known type. He claims to represent the majority in order to play up his own importance and, for example, nullifies both their German and Jewish identity.
Thus, we reach our main topic. In all Jewish organizations the principle of mutual respect should rule. For example, shouldn’t all organizations that fight against antisemitism attack at once and defer questions that require more thoughtfulness. Shouldn’t we come together and do the work of quelling the anarchy in our communities and putting an end to the misery of rabbis, teachers, and administrators.
We have enough leagues and associations and it would be more valuable that some of them that want to sustain the future of Judaism leave behind their romanticism and do the work and stop the talking.
The choice of the Book of Ruth as a reading for the feast of Shavuot might not make sense to all. How can a story that tells of the wheat harvest fit a feast that means to teach us that we do not live from bread alone. But the value and meaning of this story lie elsewhere. Ruth, Naomi, and Boas’ nobility is unquestionable. But let’s not forget another character in in this idyllic story—the unnamed heir who is able to act selflessly. That is what we must cultivate in Judaism. We have too many commanding generals.
The virtue of letting others enjoy their good fortune is what we should bring into our public lives in recognition that true Jewishness is not a matter of self-validation. Only when we learn that we don’t all have to lead will things go well for us. Then will Israel not only be God’s people, but it will also have be such forever and that the Lord has given all of us His Law, the best fulfillment of which is the Jewish heart and Jewish spirit.
Association of German National Jews and Political Dilettantism.
A letter from Dr. Paul Nathan, Berlin.
It is with some delay that I read the article by Dr. Max Naumann, Berlin titled “National German Jews and the Middle Ranks” in the May 27th issue.
This essay is informative, because it explains the innermost essence of this movement which was brought to life by Dr. Naumann.
The innermost essence of this movement is lack of clarity, which can be proven by Dr Naumann’s own words.
In your newspaper he observes the following about his opponent [i.e. Erich Spitz, link to referenced article]:
He seeks to prove to me that my nationalist feeling is not right, that it is in truth nationalism, but he doesn’t actually address my point, so I would have to do the same to him if I were to try to counter him. For, we are not dealing with things that are provable, that can only be apprehended by the mind; we are not dealing with ideas, but with feelings, that can only be grasped by the heart.”
Nothing is more defining than these words that lead from the political into the mystical. This statement explains completely Dr. Naumann’s inconsistency as he deviated from his original program for the German National Jews and has deviated again and again, as Mr. [Justizrat] Hirschberg detailed in your newspaper.
Dr. Naumann deludes himself that the essence of a national feeling, of a true and beautiful national feeling, cannot be defined. This essence is based the fact that the citizen fights for his fatherland against a violation from the outside and is ready to sacrifice everything, even life, and is not for justifying the interests of the individual in domestic politics but rather is led by the ideals that best serve the interests of the entire fatherland. That the understanding of this varies proves that men with very different ideals have stepped up to lead political parties that are fighting each other—each convinced of the purity of their intentions. And it is exactly because of this situation it would be so wrong for Jews to exclusively—as Jews—to join one party.
The ideal, and it is a high and modern ideal, requires the equality of all citizens before the law and puts the interest of the whole state before the preference of class, race, or religion; in the interest of the high civic ideal of modern justice that judges people according to what they do and don’t do, and not according to their race, religion, or class. If it were correct that the true German national feeling were only a matter of emotion, as maintained by Dr. Naumann, then everything associated with it would come under the subjective opinion of the individual. Dr. Naumann has this thoroughly false viewpoint as evidenced by the quote from his article that I cited above.
Nothing would be more fateful than if German Jews allowed themselves to be pushed onto Naumann’s shaky ground. One step in this direction would deliver the most powerful weapon to antisemitism. For it is precisely the anti-Semites whose work would become easier since they maintain that the Germanic feeling rejects living together with Semites, exactly because as Dr. Naumann avers that the “national German Jew” is something completely different and better than the Jew that he calls the “middling rank.” Dr. Naumann says that these differences can’t actually be defined, only felt, or not felt. Here, as there, hence precisely this baseless deduction, and Dr. Naumann in his political naivete doesn’t even recognize the help his argumentation gives to the anti-Semites.
With the same “right” with which he rejects the middle-ranker according to his feelings (a group which he defined also according to his feelings), do the anti-Semites reject Jews in totality.
It is politically harmless to want to create a political life based on feelings. But in this dilettantish method lie great dangers that Dr. Naumann with his myopia does not recognize.
The politician tries to reach absolute clarity when making decisions. The poet trusts feelings above all else. To the category of political poets, whose essence is the lack of clarity, belongs Dr. Naumann, who justifies people with antisemitic feelings if they hold these back when making decisions about practical, political matters.
Regardless of Dr. Naumann’s motives, lack of clarity in politics is as harmless as careerism and raw arrogance. And because this is so we must continue to occupy ourselves with Dr. Naumann. It’s won’t be for much longer, however. His movement has been built on such a weak foundation that it will collapse in short order. And that would be good for German Jews, and for our entire fatherland, because in this way a pathological seed will have been expunged from German political life.
Dr. P. Nathan
[Front page announcements from the Jewish Liberal Youth Organization]
Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization, Breslau
Monday, June 14th, 1921, at 8 p. m.:
in Scheitnig (at the Schweizerei).
Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization, Berlin.
Sunday, June 19th, 1921:
Day trip from Friedrichshagen to
Meet at the S-Bahn platform at the Charlottenburg train station at 7:10 a.m., train leaves at 7:22 a. M.,
Or meet at the S-Bahn platform at the Alexanderplatz train station at 7:35 a.m.;
train leaves at 7:47 a. m. We will return between 7 and 8 p. m.
We will walk 30 to 35 kilometers
[Present day Google map of the Berlin JYO’s walk]
The German Courts and the German Jews (A Berlin court’s ruling on Arthur Schnitlzer’s “Reigen” [La Ronde]
By Ernst Emil Schweitzer, J.D., Berlin
Understanding the position of the German courts take on Jewish problems should be of interest. Especially we must recognize that the German judges have fundamentally always made an effort to take an objective position on Jewish questions. Antisemitism has found no entry into German questions of law. In legal proceedings in which I represented Jewish parties I have not once come across an instance that caused me to suspect that the religious affiliation of one or other of the parties had even an indirect influence on the judge.
My experience is without doubt shared by the large majority of German lawyers. Of course, that there are exceptions that arise here and there cannot be denied. However, these are isolated instances, and where one could truly suspect a judge of an antisemitic derailment, the administration always responded to the complaint.
A recent Berlin court ruling is probably of greater interest to the Austrian Jews than to their German neighbors. It concerns the staging of the “Reigen”, which has been the source of more political conflict that in Germany. In Berlin, the court had to deal with the “Reigen” in a civil complaint. The Berlin theater which put on the “Reigen” was leased with the condition that no morally offensive pieces would be presented. It was on this basis that the Leasor of the theater (which is under the jurisdiction of the Prussian state’s government) sought to prevent the theater’s administration from further performances [of the “Reigen”]. The court dismissed the complaint and in its decision highlighted the artistic significance of the “Reigen.” Part of the court’s decision reads:
“The book offers a richness of thought and nuance. Keen, concise lines dissect the depths of intellectual constitution and the emotional life. At times coarse, even raw, rough and mean, at other times tender and sensitive, sometimes moody, mocking, teasing, lusty, free and seductive in its depiction of a constant object when viewed in ten different narratives.”
The court viewed two performances which made the following impression:
“Anything that was impudent, sleazy, or smutty was avoided. The physical union was only as a result of the natural expression of the deepest, soulful intimacy. Unfortunately this interpretation was not shared by some classes. These groups were made all too aware of the misery of the increasing moral decay in their midst by this performance. It was shown them how thoughtlessly and unworthily a ignoble and flawed instant gratification can trample that which should be the holiest to humanity.
As the play’s directors explained, the impact peaks in a moral disgust over the degraded attitudes of some social classes toward sexuality. Every detail is calculated to elicit this reaction. This is successful for every mature and educated audience member. Above all, this effect is a result of how seriously the directors took their responsibility and their thoughtful, expert rendering of the theatrical portrayal.
As such, this performance is a moral act.”
When one considers how much extreme antisemitic rage accompanied the performance of Schnitzler’s “Reigen” in Austria especially, (however, even in Germany some rowdies had plans to disrupt the performance und were only prevented by the energetic efforts of the Berlin police), one must give double the credit to the objectivity of the court’s decision, regardless of how one personally regards the performance of “Reigen.” I on purpose do treat the artistic problem here. At this point for me it comes down to the fact that the German judges made the effort to regard the artistic and moral question objectively without allowing themselves to be influenced by nationalist assumptions.
German judges have also had the opportunity to take a position on Jewish issues in family law, especially on marriage and the raising of children. My experience and knowledge have shown that here too they have had the goal of objectively considering any special religious conditions. I will describe some not well enough known significant decisions of German courts in a later article.
I would like to address one more point of view at this time. It would be very desirable that when our fellow Jewish citizens come before a judge that they be aware of the responsibility that they bear, not just to themselves, but to the entire community. For this reason they should avoid doing anything that would demean the community in the judge’s eyes, and they should sacrifice their personal sensitivity. Especially, when there is no specific need for it, should they avoid bringing civil suits to settle gossip and personal disputes with fellow Jews and instead first try to resolve these through amicable agreements. Also in marital matters should one avoid everything that could lead to unnecessary quarrels or ugly escalations. These are general guidelines that we freely acknowledge have already been largely adopted, but which one can never too often repeat.
Aus dem Reich.
Berlin. Poor conditions in the Stargard detention camp.
The Workers Welfare bureau of the Jewish organizations in Germany shares the following:
It is known that the a detention camp for “undesirable foreigners” has existed for about three months in Stargard. While at the beginning mostly foreigners with some kind of criminal record were detained there, recently countless foreigners have been interned there who received deportation notices because they temporarily lost their jobs, without having the possibility to plead their case that the conditions in Eastern Europe prevented a return to their homeland. These are not criminals, but by and large foreigners who can and want to work, who would have long ago found new jobs but are now in detention.
Now the conditions in the Stargard detention camp have become extraordinarily poor. The treatment of the detainees by the guards defy all humane sensibilities. The Workers Welfare bureau has investigated the cases and concluded that countless detainees have been mercilessly beaten and mistreated.
The detainees are verbally abused with the crudest expressions. Due to the mistreatment, and the extraordinarily bad conditions and care, the number of sick lying in the infirmary is exceedingly high. The contact between the detainees and the outside world is very limited. Letters are censured. The complaints of the prisoners are not satisfactorily addressed.
A few days ago a barrack housing 80 men burned down. Since there were no fire extinguishing material, the guards, counter to their duty, did not react swiftly enough and the whole barrack burned down. More than a few detainees suffered burns, one of them had very serious wounds. The detainees’ clothing, valuables, and papers burned. Since the barrack doors were locked, the detainees jumped out of the windows and were met by scolding guards or beaten with clubs. The next day, during reveille, the detainees were threatened that the next time a barrack is on fire, they are not allowed to jump out and just burn to death.
The Workers Welfare bureau immediately investigated and then made the sharpest complaint to the Ministry. The Ministry of the Interior told us that it had immediately launched a serous investigation into the incident. A highly-placed member of the Ministry was sent to Stargard. It must be noted that the Ministry reacted very quickly. We are currently awaiting the prompt correction of these unbelievable circumstances.
Berlin. Liberal Association for the Affairs of the Jewish Congregation.
Professor Türk spoke on the “Religious or Worldly School” at a meeting of the Charlottenburg chapter. In the battle between Zionism and Orthodoxy on the one hand and Liberalism on the other the school question is the most important question. The Zionists demand not only a Jewish elementary school, they want to make the entire education system, from Kindergarten, to high schools to colleges, to be religious and Hebraic; world history must be taught from the Jewish perspective. The Orthodox perceive that the only way to enact Sabbath rest is to have Jewish schools. (German schools held classes on Saturday.] These schools would have eight mandatory hours of Hebrew lessons and two elective hours per week. Even the liberal Jewish teachers support Jewish elementary schools, however only as long as other religions also have schools. The main reason for opening Jewish schools is the antisemitism of teachers and the poor relations between Jewish and Christian children. Professor Türk considers these circumstances to be a result of the Revolution and therefore temporary; he is not convinced that introducing Jewish schools will instill in our children a truly Jewish spirit, and that the schools will allow them to keep Sabbath will have an effect on them in their later years as the Orthodox hope. Common education with children of other beliefs is the only way that differences can be dealt with by knowing and understanding each other in these early years. Where this is not possible children can at least be raised to defend themselves from antisemitic animosity. May those that want to live in Germany send their children to German schools. Supporting the national Jewish wishes and the complete separation of Jews from their environment is grist for the antisemites’ mill. The number of people leaving Judaism would increase when the Zionists and Orthodox hold the majority representation in our organization. The liberal faction of the congress and the youth organizations have stated their opposition to the introduction of Jewish schools.
Next, Mrs. Martha Henschke spoke on the topic of “Women’s work and the Jewish Congregation.” Despite progress made in other areas, women are still not allowed to hold representative positions in the congregations. Once the [Prussian Jewish] law of 1847 is repealed, the Jewish woman should see to it that her home is a truly Jewish one. In order to do that she must expand her knowledge of Judaism and contribute to the work of achieving Jewish ideals. The Liberal Association must see to it that the law of 1847 is repealed as soon as possible.Third on the agenda was a talk by Dr. Satokionski [sp?] on “Expansion and Defense.” After the decline of Jewish community brought on by the war and the post-war years the Liberal Association must build it back up again. The other groups are not in the position to do it since they are following the Jewish national political goals with the Orthodox are undecided as to whether to follow those or the Liberals. If the current situation does not seem fortuitous, it is often worth wanting to do the right thing when it comes to important matters. Liberal Judaism wants to awaken a modern, religious life, but it doesn’t just want to bring in the new and do away with those things that have lost their inner value. It also wants to keep what is still valuable now. Liberalism can work in areas beyond the religious sphere. Jewish education must be improved through the alignment of rabbinical seminaries, the law of 1847 must be repealed, and countless social problems await to be addressed.
Announcement: A gathering of Jewish writers who write in German will take place in Prague in mid June. We have asked that as a member of our editorial staff, Ludwig Davidsohn attend. He will write about his impressions of the Prague meeting for our newspaper.
Berlin. Emigrants to Argentina.
The Central Bureau for Jewish Emigration of the Aid Society of German Jews wrote us: Recently there have been frequent instances where emigrants to Argentina come to our office for help with the following—they cannot continue their journey because they failed to have their relatives get the required entry permission from the Argentinian Immigration service in Buenos Aires on time. Without this permission they cannot get a visa from the Argentinian Consulate. This oversight can have serious consequences. The emigrants have to telegraph their relatives in Argentina and then wait perhaps a long while in Berlin for the documents to arrive—all of which can be very expensive and troublesome, especially for families. We must again call attention to these requirements. The following people need a special permission from the Immigration Services in Buenos Aires to enter Argentina: Unaccompanied children under 15 years of age, unaccompanied adults over 60 years of age, unaccompanied pregnant women, unaccompanied women with children under 10 years of age and families that have no head of household or father. Travelers to Argentina that fall into one of these categories must have their relatives in Argentina send the required permission before they start their journey.
Hamburg. German Language and Culture of German Jews in the Middle Ages.
Rabbi Dr. Rieger of Braunschweig was invited to lecture by the Society for Jewish Cultural Studies in Hamburg. He spoke in a very full halll of the Museum of Ethnology on Jewish contributions to German language and culture, extending a lecture he presented here in October of last year on the homeland rights of Jews. He pointed to the fact that Jews have lived in Germany in organized communities for 1,600 years and have participated intensely in the cultural life of the German people.
The speaker started from the idea that the mother tongue is one of the formative principles of nationality and as one learns this language one also begins to be embedded in that people’s culture. The historical evidence of this is that German Jews have thought and written in the German mother tongue for over a milennium and have influenced the development of the German language. Hebrew, which was learned alongside German, was a religious and scholarly language, while German was indeed the mother tongue. Jewish children’s names in Germany show that virtually all German names were used. Hebrew names were adapted to German language rules that they didn’t seem foreign at all which can be attested to by their use among Christians. Biblical names such as Hanna, Mirjam, Elischewa became Anna, Maria, Lisbeth. The participation in German is especially evidenced by the many transmissions of prayers and Jewish texts into German. German translations of prayers even appear in the German Carnival poetry, e.g. that of Hans Pfalz Balbirer. Very early on Jews demonstrated their mastery of their mother tongue with their German versions of complete works of Hebrew literature. A manuscript in the Hamburg City Library is an excellent example of this literary accomplishment. It is a version of the books of Samuel in German Nibelungen Strophen which has earned their author, Liva (Loewe) of Regensburg a place among the best German poets of the fourteenth century. Almost all the books of the Bible receive this poetic treatment in the German language, either in the beloved Nibelungen verse or the “Ottava rima” (eight-meter). Also original works of literature appear early on. There is a series of moral tracts, the book about morality by Simeon ben Jehuda and the Little Garden by Isaac von Wurms which all deserve to be mentioned. Of course, the first position among these original German poets is held by the Minnesaenger Susskind von Trimberg whose poems belong to the best works of the early thirteenth century. He is joined by a not insignificant number of composers of folk and social songs. The speaker gave examples and details from three collections of these songs and explained their significance to German literature. A not inconsiderable number of German heroic lays, love stories, and farces also received independent treatment by Jews such that these twoo made important contributions to German letters. Among German Jewish culture, there came to be an unusual reciprocity where German themes received a Jewish treatment and Jewish themes were in turn reworked by Christians. As evidence, the speaker pointed to the fact that there is no difference to be found between German and Jewish craftsmen of weaponry. All areas of Germany recorded a number of Jews who were armed and ready to be mustered. And of course, Jews were represented in all the trades and crafts until the trade organizations prevented them from participating. Since the 11th century Jews were engaged in the monetary exchanges due to their extensive trade with the orient and import/export of goods. Despite the many instances of antisemitism abounding during the middle ages, there are many indications that the majority of the Christian population kept their distance from such animosity. Here the speaker cited Reuchlin’s Augenspiegel and Luther’s classic writing from 1523 stating that Jesus was born a Jew. The speaker concluded with a mention that German national literature owes much to Moses Mendelsohn’s influence. The lecture was well well received by the attentive and grateful audience.
Spandau. Aggression against Jews by the Authorities.
The “Spandauer Daily News” has as its masthead “The administrative outlet for local police regulations and binding announcements for the public and other administrations” publishes in issue 118 a lead article, “Stock market battles and bravery” ends with this sentence, “ We call for an unremitting Jewish law.” This call is based on all sorts of made up stories that can truly be only manufactured by a sick, antisemitic brain. Among other things, it maintains that the English minister, Churchill could have avoided the defeat of the German navy but was bribed by Sir Ernest Cassel in the service of stock market speculations. A paper that prints such things would be met by disbelief even by the inmates of Dalldorf [asylum]. But for the Spandauer police and its mouthpiece, it seems fit enough.
Hohenlimburg. The Jewish School.
The Jewish congregation requested funds from the city to assist with the cost of their private school. The request was denied and the city recommended that the Jewish congregation allow their teachers to become part of the city schools and that the children attend the public elementary schools.
Stuttgart. The Jewish Wurttemberg State Church Congress.
Summary: The Jewish religious congress met to ratify the state church constitution. President Baelz opened the meeting in the name of the church administration and emphasized that the decisions made on these important issues such as taxation and exiting congregations could only be temporary until the winter when a new church law would make many of them irrelevant. The current constitution was based on the Jewish [religious] law of 1921. Wurttemberg is the only German state that has a Jewish state church organization, which should be maintained and enhanced. Individuals mentioned: President of the congress, Baelz; former president, Heumann (from Laupheim) factory owner Julius Rothschild elected chairman and the lawyer Dr. Hayum (from Tubingen) vice chairman. State councilor Dr. Nördlinger, state minister Dr Hirsch (who believes the new constitution will be less favorable to Jewish congregations). Other speakers include Dr. Gumbel and the lawyer, Lepman.
The Jews in War Societies.
Over a year has passed since Mr. Alfred Roth, the head of the German Protection and Defiance League, announced his upcoming publication “The Jews in War Societies.” This long wait has in no way improved this project. On the contrary, the brochure is much more hateful and polemical than its military partner piece “The Jews in the Army.” We noticed that the writer once again hides behind the pseudonym of “Otto Arnim”—probably because that sounds more “German” than the name Roth, which is also a Jewish name. Or perhaps maybe so that he can quote himself under his actual name like Mr. Theodor Fritsch does with his various nice-sounding names.
The whole polemic character of this diatribe is made obvious by the fact that he only cites examples of Jewish war profiteers and Jewish crimes but is completely silent about how large the number of Christian profiteers and swindlers is. Likewise he only mentions the Jewish names among the war societies. He made his work easy by largely using passages from nationalist papers or writings as the “factual” basis of the conclusions he draws. Corrections to these false narratives made by Jews or the government authorities are simply waved away as excuses or attempts to hide the truth. Then, he serves up all manner of old antisemitic anti-Semitic tales from the Talmud and Jewish teachings.
He uses these to blame all Jews for the faults of a few individuals. He claims that “when Jews exploit wars to enrich themselves they are just following the principles they have been taught in their synagogues.” It matters not to Mr. Roth that the leading Christian scholars have provided evidence that the ethics of the Jewish religion are equal to those of the Christian religious, which in fact builds on the Jewish religion. The sad thing is that such statements are believed by the so-called educated, but hardly critical readers. Naturally, according to Roth-Arnim the economic restrictions were introduced by Rathenau to serve the purposes of the Jews and he doesn’t hold back from smearing Rathenau and Ballin with dung when he maintains that this had been their plan from the start and they depended o the war coming to an unhappy end, even going so far as to engineer this outcome!! It’s with this kind of crass maligning that Herr Roth claims is his service to the German people but in reality only foments their fury.
It’s truly not worth going into the many one-sided distortions in Roth’s pamphlet. One knows the polemic: Jews only act from self-service, they are incapable of acting for the greater good of the community. Apparently the author has completely forgotten that during the war his own party members brought complaints against the price gouging of many farmers, among whom there were probably hardly any Jews. According to Roth, Jews infiltrated war societies only to make money, but when experienced and conscientious experts were needed self-sacrifice was made without any thought to one’s own advantage in fulfilling one’s difficult duty, there were no Jews present. How it goes with this “self-sacrifice” we seen in the recent case of the arrest of two former officers from Wumba for bribery who worked with Christian accomplices to steer contracts worth millions to a small-time carpemter? Herr Roth seems to know nothings about this! Herr R. reveals what weapons he fights with when he cites the statistic that 11.5% of leadership positions in war societies were held by Jews and then questions this number saying that about 20% of these positions was held by Jews. From this number he concludes that Jews dominated the leadership of the war societies—he gets a poor grade in Math.
The Roth book in its entirety fits in with the rest of antisemitic literature. His own opinions and judgements are presented as unassailable proof that Jews are guilty of all evil. This is the easiest method to poison the soul of the people and to mask the failings of others under the veil of love of one’s neighbor.
The German-nationalist Protection and Defiance League
The German-nationalist Protection and Defiance League distributed a flyer “The Jew in the War-time Economy” in 1919 that ascribed responsibility for the failure of war-time economic organizations to Hews. The leader of the of the war-time organization for shoes, Commerce Councilor Wallerstein (from Offenbach) and the manufacturer Levi (from Stuttgart) were accused of using their positions to secure special advantages and enrich themselves at the cost of society in general and the other shoe manufacturers. Wallerstein and Levi brought charges against the League’s leader, Roth, who was responsible for distributing the flyer. During the trial Roth was unable to bring evidence to the contrary. He was fined 1500 Marks and sentenced to 150 days in prison. In its ruling, the court emphasized that the defendant could not provide evidence. Because the court did not find him guilty of malicious intent, the prison sentence was waived but the fine was set at the upper limit because the accusations had no basis in fact.
On Anti-Semitism in the Schools.
From an informed source we have learned of a message that the Breslau public school administration sent out to all public middle, elementary, and special needs schools on May 27 of this year .
“The public school administration has repeatedly received complaints about Jewish boys and girls being harassed by their classmates. Therefor we ask the faculty to conscientiously examine their environment and determine whether these complaints are justified. If they are, then we expect that the faculty take steps against these actions.
For schools would not be fulfilling their obligation as institutions of learning and education if students are not made clear how inappropriate, unjust and ignoble their behavior is. The Christian students are not to be allowed to believe they have the right to mistreat their Jewish classmates on the basis of their heritage or religion. And the Jewish children should never have the bitter feeling that their religion and heritage are seen as a flaw in the eyes of their classmates. We are confident in the hope that no member of our faculty would neglect their duty as an educator in this way, that no one would tolerate a situation which would dishonor us.”
Confirmations at the New Synagogue, Saturday, June 11: Bruno Kuntz (Father, Justus K., deceased, Scharnhorststraβe 26), Julius Rosenbaum (Father, Max R., Siebenhufenerstr. 17), Siegbert Schnell (Father, Julius Sch., Scharnhorststr. 26), Heinz Brann (Father, Leopold B., Kirschallee 22).
Sunday, June 12: Heinz Schenkolewski (Father, Nathan Sch., Kaiser-Wilhelm-Straβe 51).
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