Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, March 18, 1921

Judaism and Internationalism.

by Dr. Siegfried Marck, Docent at the University Breslau.
Synopsis: Two forms of internationalism are central to the discussion of Judaism and internationalism: a positive one and a negative one. Negative internationalism is rootlessness, that is, being cut loose from any sense of nationalism. Negative internationalism leads to a loss of character. Negative internationalism is associated with the “eternally wandering” Jew, a type which is often caricatured. To the thinking Jew, this rootless internationalism is a painful problem and something to be overcome.

This rootlessness is overcome by increased nationalism, hence there are two trends, one toward embracing German-ness and the other being Zionism. The choice is a personal one. Positive internationalism is characterized by a feeling of solidarity that overcomes national divisions. It does not want to negate one’s nation, but wants to see it take its place in the supra-national organism.

The author associates positive internationalism with socialism and sees elements of capitalism in the negative, materialistic internationalism. Ethical socialism is aligned with Judaism’s ethic of ideal union of nations and peoples. This Jewish ethic should be fertile ground for unifying a feeling of German nationalism with the belief in a supra-national entity.

“Of course, coldly calculating enemies have maligned us with holding pacifistic ideas as part of an antagonistic ploy. But the defamation of pure ideas characterizes the defamers, not on the ideas. Judaism is called upon to hold high the messianic ideal and to shield it from any misidentification with divisive internationalism even when surrounded by waves of hatred as we now are.”

Is There a Crisis in Liberal Judaism?

by Erich Bayer (Breslau), Chairman of the German Jewish-Liberal Youth Workgroup
Synopsis: A crisis in Liberal Judaism would consist of conflict between theory and practice, and one to such an extent as to one undermining the other. First, one must assess whether practice is formed by the theory or whether theory is influenced by practice. All directions in Judaism have the one goal of connecting Jewishness with Judaism. What does practice reveal of Liberalism’s essence?

The author describes two kinds of Liberalism: one is religious and scientific, the other practical and political. The first is represented by rabbis and the youth that study the origins and literature and build a Jewish family and congregational life based on this knowledge. The practical and political Liberalism dominates because of generational numbers. This type of Liberalism is engaged in battling Zionism, anti-Semitism, and prescribed religious tradition in congregational life. The older Jews see Zionism used as a weapon in the hands of the anti-Semites, which might be one reason they are so opposed to it. The author does not want to diminish the work of the Central Organization, but there is a danger that all of Liberalism is defined by this struggle against Zionism and anti-Semitism. Practical and political Liberalism is vulnerable to being judged by external appearance because of its apathy toward religion. It is more interested in opposing orthodoxy than in developing a vibrant, living Judaism. This has the outcome that Liberals have not formed liberal organizations and institutes within congregational life, other than serving on councils and as administrators. They have impeded any sense of community among liberals. The author sees the mission of Liberalism to further religious sensibility among Jews and thereby build a sense of community. Perhaps this mission is at odds with the Liberalism itself which is capable of fostering divisiveness, but not forging connections? One may not forget that Liberalism originated as a way to collect like-minded Jews. But the practical, political type has only succeeded in giving divisiveness the upper hand, with the result that there is indeed a serious crisis within Liberalism.

The youth movement is not experiencing such a crisis as it is focused on the religious aspects of liberal Judaism. Its goal is simply the transformation of the individual. The communal is grounded in the smallest circle of the family, in the organization built on common goals, and within the whole of Judaism. This communal sensibility will show itself in how the Eastern Jews are—as fellow believers that are being persecuted and who must be helped. There can be no question that Palestine will be a safe haven for many and must continue to be supported as a charitable cause. Palestine will be the origin of a strong religious impulse that Liberalism will benefit from. Liberalism must be more than just a German movement, for anywhere one finds Jews who live with a modern, scientific perspective, there is Liberalism, which attempts to make a living connection between religion and the individual.

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Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Synopsis: The Liberal Association for the Affairs of the Jewish Community in Berlin held its annual meeting on February 28. A modest celebration of its 25th anniversary was held. Benas Levy looked back on its accomplishments. Among its founders were Hermann Veit, Hermann Makower, Karl Emil Franzos, and Karpeles. Since then, two new synagogues were built, schools, a hospital, a second orphanage, and a home for the elderly. Chairmen of the association were Hermann Veit Simon, Bernhard Breslauer, and Plonsker. The speaker called for the continued engagement of the liberal association and the liberal majority in the Jewish community, especially with the purpose of opposing Jewish nationalism. Counselor Plonsker was elected chair and the dentist, M. Lipschitz was elected vice chair. Eugen Caspary and Dr. Walter Breslauer were elected secretaries, and Richard Cassel and Albert Maaβ treasurers. 7 other members were elected, among them a woman for the first time, Mrs. Seligsohn.

Hamburg.Synopsis: When the Union of German Jews was asked whether it would continue its existence given the newly instituted Central Organization, it responded that it will continue until the new organization is legally formed under Section 137 of the Reich’s constitution.

Schwerin. Synopsis: In Plau, Mecklenburg, the former Jewish synagogue was purchased by a manufacturer, Paul Strauβ who has donated it to the Catholic parish. It has been renovated as an elegant chapel and last week a Catholic Mass was held there for the first time.

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Frankfurt a. Main. Synopsis: The Jewish community requested additional flour for Passover Matzoh given last year’s shortage. Ration card A will receive 4.5 pounds and card B 2 pounds. In exchange for this flour, bread rations will be reduced by the amount of Matzoh received. 1 pound of Matzoh will cost 5 Marks; 1 pound of Matzoh meal will cost 5.20.

From an Upper-Silesian Nest: Childhood Memories.

Die Stadt Düsseldorf ist sehr schön, und wenn man in der Ferne an sie denkt, und zufällig dort geboren ist, wird einem wunderlich zu Muthe. Ich bin dort geboren und es ist mir, als müsste ich gleich nach Hause gehn. Und wenn ich sage nach Hause gehn, dann meine ich die Bolkerstraße und das Haus, in welchem ich geboren wurde…“ – Heinrich Heine, 1827 (Das Buch Le Grand)

One doesn’t have to be the great Heinrich Heine, one can be a humble average person and still understand and share that same magical feeling here in such an immediate and lively fashion.

And one doesn’t have to have been born in the beautiful city of Düsseldorf to experience this feeling in just the same way. The Upper-Silesian town about whose seemingly monotonous life I’ll be telling you a thing here and there as images cross the threshold of my memory is not at all beautiful, as all contemporaries agree, but since I happened to be born there, I still get a wondrous feeling when I think of that dear nest. Indeed, all the more wondrous a feeling these days as we Upper Silesians “go home” to help protect our homeland from a dismal fate by gladly professing our loyalty to the German fatherland.

By the way, just so I don’t err, you don’t have to faithfully believe the negative judgment I just made. You can take the usually sarcastic reference, “Nest” in its different sense, and think it lovely when seen with an objective eye. The town has two unusual adornments: the wide band of the Oder which divides into two branches here and the green belt of wonderful promenades that surrounds the town.

Anyone who has grown up near a body of water knows what that means to the youth. Swimming, rowing, fishing in summer, ice skating in winter, — always new pleasures, against which the life of most urban children who live far from nature seems flat and hollow.

And then our promenades. They lie under tall, full trees that each seemed to look upon us with a trusted face. Generations of people, German people, have grown up and grown tall at the feet of these old ones, seen them bloom and fade. And now they must be shaking their heads in wonder that anyone can doubt whether the inhabitants of this land and this town are Germans. They know full well that the children, whose gleeful shouts and singing reaches them, the burghers who walk of a late afternoon with measured steps, and then the couples who come in the evening and whose language and means of communicating we can’t exactly describe…

Above all there are wonderful old oaks that we treasured, not just for their beauty or the mysterious sighs and rustlings of their crowns but for their material value. For when the real autumn winds came, then they threw off their hard, firm fruit. We zealously collected these acorns and sold them to a merchant who made them into pig feed. The money we turned around into candy, and then later into our first forbidden cigarettes. We ran off with those back to the protection of the broad oak boughs and played our forbidden Skat card games…

The promenades were named “Glacis” which hearkened back to their earlier military purpose and their historic role. In 1806/7, the former fort held fast courageously and stubbornly against the attacks of the French and their Bavarian allies. During my childhood larger and smaller bullets in houses and in the old barracks that had been converted to apartments and workshops recalled that time of German trouble vividly and visibly. We sometimes stood before them and let our childish dreams of olden times meander through the lovelier present and our brightly colored future.

But daydreaming was naturally not our main occupation – playing is when the child comes to life. And where could anyone play better than in our hometown? We played in the ruins of the old robber baron’s castle, that rose so ghostly behind the old trees, in the space around the old fortifications’ mounds and ditches that were made for games of cops and robbers, on the modest “Witch Hill” down whose slops our sleds raced, in the birch forest where we stealthily built fires to roast the new fall potatoes (which were naturally stolen). What does the average city kid know of these heavenly pleasures?

One more thing gave life in our town, and our childhood, its uniqueness: it was a garrison town with two infantry battalions. There were 1500 soldiers in a town of seven or eight thousand inhabitants. No wonder that the bright uniform almost completely dominated the town’s streets and our childish imagination! We experienced the whole year on a military schedule. The military year began around the time of our religious New Year, with the arrival of the recruits. During the high holidays, the congregation’s sons that had just been recruited were the objects of our admiration and attempts at befriending them. But their glory faded when other uniforms appeared in the synagogue such as that of a sub-lieutenant that had come in for military manoeuvers (it never got any more senior!) or of a staff doctor…naturally “d. R.”

On clear autumn days we watched the new recruits being drilled and we developed a much higher degree of enthusiasm than the objects themselves had for this not always so gentle training.

The secular New Year brought quite a military show: The Great Wake Up, that is reveille, that went through the streets at seven in the morning and brought out the pointed caps. Every boy ran to the window and watched full of admiration as they moved through the morning gray—first the lieutenant with his sash, then the musicians, the drum, the band, and then our friends, the musketeers. Of course we had our own special relationship to them—not least because of the Kommiβ bread. These relationships were tightest in the weeks before the Kaiser’s birthday. Because then we were after invitations to the individual companies’ displays, or at least to go to the public rehearsals, where there was so much to see, and hear, to laugh about and sometimes to cry over. I still remember quite well how moved we were when a soldier (who might well have been a talented actor) recited the Julius Wolff poem, “The Flag of the Sixty-first.” When he got to the end:
“…If we return without our flag,
Our brothers one and all – pardon us!
We did lose it,
But it was not taken from anyone yet living.”

we cried as though we were trying to outdo the girls…

The day before the great day, our illuminated town was like out of a fairy-tale. Today’s youth that is growing up in the time of expensive candles has no idea how beautiful, in a purely aesthetic sense, a see of candlelight can be and what a magical atmosphere it creates. That’s over with now—so much is over with—that which is beautiful, but externally so, must now be replaced with things of interior worth…

Then came the holiday itself. Again, an early reveille. Then the school celebrations, at which Jewish pupils were often enough selected to recite patriotic poems. There was no anti-Semitism that would have prevented that from happening at the integrated elementary school, which I first attended, or at the college preparatory school which accepted me later.

After these celebrations there came more pleasures. The military displays: the ceremonial reception of those who were housed in the commandant’s quarters, the honorably displayed regimental flags, the troops on parade, the commandant’s speech which sounded as far as the marketplace, and then the parade. The commandant could be as harsh a critic as might be—we were harsher. Our hearts beat high when the country’s veterans’ associations marched after the troops. From veterans from three wars, whose iron crosses were reverently admired to the soldiers who had just become reservists, all competed with the military bearing of the active soldiers. And yet, amongst the older ones were many who could not have given a comprehensible German answer to a German question because Polish was their mother tongue and their daily language. But if anyone had dared say anything inappropriate about the meaning of the day or about Germany within earshot, then those Polish hands would have returned a German enough answer. For we who grew up in Upper Silesia must affirm and emphasize against the deceptive propaganda of these times: May the Prussian bureaucracy and Prussian militarism in the bi-lingual areas been too forceful, may those that came from the west and didn’t understand the people and thus made harmful missteps, all in all this soft, Slavic people did not feel unsafe under this rigid control that brought peace, order, and wealth. That is why during my childhood one never felt opposition between the two nations—opposition has been created gradually by the arts of sedition. The German side made a grave mistake for not having fought against these sentiments. Despite all this, Germans an Poles were not so bitter towards each other until recent years as this example shows: During the 15 years I served as an attorney in the Upper-Silesian courts, I have never seen trials for beatings or assaults, or civil proceedings in which conflict between Germans and Poles played any role whatsoever. Compare that with today’s times, and there is no doubt who bears the blame for the bitter turn of events.

Relations between us Jews and the rest of the population were characterized by a peaceful and friendly tone. I never heard an insulting word spoken about Jews at school—not by teachers or pupils. Certainly, many things had to come together to create such favorable conditions. Everyone knows that in Upper Silesia the people’s mentality is largely shaped by Catholic religiosity. The old town priest—he still serves today—was always a man of God who performed his duties as Lessing urged “with gentleness, with sincere tolerance, with charity, with heartfelt submission to God.” With the same peaceful sensibilities the protestant pastor, the state council, the mayor—all strictly conservative men, who have as much in common with today’s swastika wearers as a noble hound has with a yapping mutt.

Naturally the preservation of these friendly relations between us Jews and the others was made much easier by the character of the man who served as cantor and preacher. In the small red house next to the synagogue whose inhabitants were close family friends, in the garden at the rear of the house and on the green area around the temple I spent the happiest hours of my childhood. But this isn’t what forms my judgment of the good-hearted old man, at whose feet I was allowed to sit and who applied such enthusiasm and love to teaching us the sacred meaning of prayers and the spirit of the language in which they were passed down t o us. Oh, how often we rewarded his efforts so poorly! Hebrew lessons took away our Wednesday afternoon, one of the two afternoons during the week when we didn’t have school. They took away Sunday mornings when our comrades were allowed to play outside. We were all too often aware of that and let it distract us. When the old man, whom we all loved, struck the table with his thick cane and began the lesson, always with the same words, “Look, be quiet, school has started,” the boys and girls in the room grew quiet but our thoughts didn’t let themselves be controlled as easily as our busy mouths—they fluttered freely around the room and away from the seven prayers and the other holy things out to the blossoming meadows and our schoolfriends’ ballgames [“Klippe” and “Knetschenball”].

Even though the resulting positive knowledge did not equal his untiring efforts, he did root the essentials deep in our hearts: the love of Judaism; because he possessed it himself in such endless measure and because he was such a good man and of such pure will. That’s why former pupils visited with him and his angelic wife in his home with such pleasure when they came back for vacation or were travelling through. During these days, when the town’s sons and daughters, now living abroad, return to their home, the old woman, who is still mentally alert and physically lively, will receive many guests and reap a bit of the immeasurable love she sowed over the decades. In these days during which is taking place something that has never taken place before on such a scale: coming together with the people with whom we enjoyed the happiness of those golden early years which gave way to the unspeakably difficult experience of war and revolution. At first, feeling our way through hesitatingly and unsure and then full of joy at finding and recognizing each other on the earth of our passionately loved, deeply threatened homeland. In these days when the dice roll…

With that, I must think of one of my hometown’s Jewish hucksters who gathered the people around his booth for throwing dice on the Pentecost fairgrounds with loud speeches that always ended with the words, “und quietsch und quatsch und querimonia, und jacta est alea …”

Now it’s “jacta est alea” [the die are cast] in all earnestness. The die will fall and determine the fate of this country and this city, and your fate, my home on the Oder, about which I’ve said nothing here and don’t want to.

When we first became concerned that Upper Silesia could be lost to us, my little girl started ending her bedtime prayer: “Dear God, don’t let us become enemies.” How a seven-year-old mind worked that out, whether she truly believed that shifting the country’s border would mysteriously change the people—I’m not sure. But I take those childish words a different way. Upper Silesians will have to prove whether they are their own enemies. If they are not,–and we have the utmost confidence that they are not—then we’ll see a wave of rejoicing sweep through our Germany on a level never before experienced, and nowhere will it echo more loudly than in my homeland, in my beloved Upper-Silesian nest. Erich Spitz
[Translator’s Note: The German Bundesarchiv lists Erich Spitz as having been born in Cosel, (PL Koźle) Upper Silesia.]

From the Province.

The Plebiscite in Upper Silesia. Synopsis: We are certain that the 20th of March will bring an overwhelming victory for Germany. What it would mean to our fellow Jews in Upper Silesia if the region were to be ceded to Poland needs hardly be mentioned. But for a more important reason than that, the Jews of Upper Silesia gladly cast their vote for our German fatherland because of how firmly they belong to the German culture. At Breslau’s increasingly busy train stations, fellow Jews are receiving kosher meals as organized by the banker, Löwy. The atmosphere was dampened however when some volunteers helping with the transportation of voters displayed the swastika. The newspaper’s editors were assured that measures were immediately taken against these displays.
Rybnik, Upper Silesia. Synopsis: Kosher meals are available for voters. Contact Rabbi Dr. Nellhaus.

Press Roundup.

Synopsis: In the official journal of the Central Union of Jewish Craftsmen of Germany, “Craftsmanship and Industry,” Alfed Vogelsang (Dusseldorf) writes about the belief that even the Jewish community has that Jewish craftsmanship is inferior which leads to congregations often hiring non-Jews. One way to counteract that is to make every effort to be a trustworthy advisor and spare the customer unnecessary expenditures.

In the “Israelitsches Familienblatt” Dr. Margarete Pinner
writes about the career choices of Jewish girls. Only in the case of some individuals is the choice of career determined at the outset by a special talent. In the majority of cases of our girls traditional considerations influence the decision to take up one career or another.

While the Jewish woman of course went into homemaking until just a couple of decades ago, a career in business is now the dominant choice. It seems to be a foregone conclusion that Jewish parents now send their daughters to a business school after completing their basic education or have them go into a business apprenticeship.

A thorough study of the question of career advice reveals that this situation is damaging to the life of our community. Being seated impedes the natural development of women’s bodies, and the one-dimensional activity leaves the intellectual and emotional strengths of our girls undeveloped. Our women have grown more nervous from the hectic life of commerce; the task of raising and feeding our children is done less lovingly and less carefully than in the past. And the Jewish house now only rarely has the calm beauty for which it had been praised earlier.

In our unquiet times the affinity of many women for the orderly and calm work of homemaking has already reawakened. It is important that we strengthen this affinity by emphasizing to our girls that homemaking is a real “career” through which value can be created such that the domestically occupied woman is not to be respected less than the commercially engaged one. It seems to us that working towards this is one of the most essential goals of career counseling.

The fact that our girls are educated only scientifically, and are not exposed to the domestic or agricultural occupations, is a serious shortcoming of our educational system. Only when they have had a chance to practice all types of work as children can they choose one career over another. If this were the case, it seems certain that a significantly larger percentage of girls would choose domestic or agricultural careers. One way to close this gap immediately would be to offer homemaking evening courses and to install school gardens. The costs for these are not unmanageable and could be supplied by private donors, organizations, and congregations. While these are being put in place, Jewish parents who are at all in the position to do so could let their children work in another household for a year before a career is decided upon. In addition to the urban and rural domestic apprenticeships of which the employment officials are already aware of, an exchange of children could be organized, as is currently being planned by the lodge. This would free up some apprenticeships and give young girls the opportunity to educate themselves more broadly without it costing too much. This year-long apprenticeship should take the place of the boarding-school year that used to be common.

Hopefully the coming years will be marked by progress in the education of our girls brought about by cooperation among concerned parties and that the career choices of Jewish women become healthier and strengthen Jewish families.

Synopsis: An article appearing in the “Illustrowany Kuryer Codzienny” (Krakau) connects Lloyd George’s anti-Polish policies to his supposed pro-Jewish stance and support of international Jewish financiers, especially those now responsible for moving the world’s financial center from London to Wall Street.

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Local Events.

Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, Breslau chapter, Synopsis: reports that the attorney, Dr. Dütschke (Zobten) has written Counselor Landsberg (Schweidnitz) that he will not accept a retainer from him because he does not accept retainers from Semitic lawyers on principle.

Erna Bial Dance Recital.

Synopsis: The young Breslau native gave a modern dance recital, notably to Scriabin’s Prelude where she perfectly combined music and movement to give expression to the subtle nuances of interior emotion. Even more impressive were three dances performed without music which revealed her keen creativity.

Assemblies and Associations.

Synopsis: The Liberal Union of Synagogue Congregations hosted a “Bierabend” with speeches by Alfred Bielschowsky, John Levi, and Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein. The highlight of the evening was a talk by Counselor Heilberg that explored the relationship of Jews to the press and focused on the goals of Jewish publications which are love of truth, commitment to duty, and conscientiousness. Speeches were followed by singing, raffles and an auction.

The Association for Jewish History and Literature will sponsor a lecture on “The Rhine in Jewish History” by Rabbi Dr. Adolf Kober (Cologne) on March 22.

Family Announcements.

Engagements: Ruth Schutz (Glatz) with Dr. Lothar Markiewitz (Breslau), Hermine Hauβmann (Breslau) with Dr. Paul Mayer (Charlottenburg), Alice Friedländer (Mikultschütz, Upper Silesia) with Rudolf Caro (Breslau), Elly Groβmann (Frankenstein, Silesia) with Georg Bernstein (Seeburg, East Prussia).

Marriages: Paul Ries with Felicia Feibelsohn (Breslau), Paul Mottek with Erna Jaentke (Breslau), Curt Wittenberg with Charlotte Fischer (Breslau), Max Lewin with Lisbet Tockuβ (Breslau), Curt Süβmann with Suse Lustig (Breslau).

Births. Son: Josef Manneberg and Erna nee Rahmer (Breslau), Georg Bujakowski and Gertrud nee Grün (Waldenburg, Silesia), William Heumann and Mally nee Klindworth (Breslau).
Daughter: Dentist Richard Engel and Alice (Breslau). Dr. Paul Ledermann and Elisabeth nee Freter (Breslau), Walter Weiβ and Philipine nee Bileski (Breslau), Bernhard Lob and Aenne nee Schmitz (Breslau).

Deaths: Geheimer Justizrat Dr. Ludwig Cohn (Breslau); Adolf Lustig (Breslau), Oscar Freund (Breslau), Hertha Pick nee Süβmann (Breslau), Michael Weiβ (Berlin), Bruno Lomnitz (Breslau), Fanny Markus nee Wittenberg (Breslau).

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, March 11, 1921

Religious Liberalism.

by Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein (Breslau).
Partial translation: Dr. Vogelstein had recently seen the term “liberal Judaism” used in contrast to “positive Judaism.” The label “liberal” has been adopted from political life, and liberal Judaism does share some traits with liberal politics. Granted that “liberal” is the wrong label for the religious movement, but so are “orthodox,” “observant,” and “conservative” for their respective directions.

There seems to be a notion that one should simply be Jewish, but how can that be? Communal lives must always be lead from a certain perspective lest confusion reign. Liberal Jews view Judaism from a liberal perspective. It is not less positive nor less Jewish than any other perspective. Liberal Judaism does not seek to “subtract” from Judaism. Those who think that liberal Jews are less religious are wrong. Liberal religiosity takes different external forms. Liberalism is not merely the “comfortable” form of Judaism.

Revelation and progress are the two fundamental concepts of Liberalism. The Bible is God’s word the expression of revelation and imbued with divine spirit. The process that revelation took is not something we claim to understand. But we do know that the wonderful, ethical monotheism is not something that is meticulously interpreted. Rather it is revelation that has come to life through religious genius. This revelation is not a one-sided action of God’s. Instead its characteristics are determined by the prophets. The holy scriptures are not only written for man, but by man. The words of the Bible are sacred to us, but more sacred is the divine spirit that imbues them. We are of the belief that the slavish literal interpretation of the bible does not do justice to its wonderful poetry and actually destroys its deep religious and ethical content.

The second concept, progress, was seen as equally important as revelation by the moderate theologian Güdemann and his conservative teacher Zacharias Frankel. This does not mean that tradition has no value—Judaism is a religion with history that spans “from the first word of the Bible to the last of the Talmudists, from the medieval philosophers to the laborious studies of a Darschau (?), from the casuist’s narrow interpretations to the free words of the modern sermon.” Thus did Abraham Geiger characterize the concept of progress. Liberals do not break with tradition, but they do not recognize a single moment in history as being the end of Judaism’s development. Liberals believe that only in this way does religion remain a living, life-giving force for all times. Whether or not one accepts the concept of development in theory, in the reality of life it remains dominant. Compare for example today’s orthodox with Judaism at the time of emancipation. One need only remember the struggles around allowing German sermons or singing from the congregation. Now sermons have been in German in orthodox synagogues for decades and the vestments of the rabbis and cantors have shed traces of cabbalistic appropriation–everything appears more natural. Liberals believe that the flow of progress can be halted as little as one can ignore history.

Youth and Anti-Semitism.

by Dr. Braubach, Attorney.
Synopsis: This article describes the anti-Semitism among university students, which used to be limited to the fraternities but is now more pervasive. For example, anti-Semitic groups won 2/3 of the votes in the recent local student election. These students will become the judges, teachers, and doctors and hold leadership positions among the Germans. The German fraternities played such a decisive role in the struggle for democracy which makes their current anti-Semitism all the more painful. Now they lower themselves to programmatically forbid members to have “Jewish or colored wives” with the exception of Indian women because India is the cradle of Aryanism according to Count Reventlow.

Dr. Braubach recalls standing in front of the Sistine Madonna thinking that this ideal woman, this mother figure was Jewish, and that the irresponsible leaders of this student movement have besmirched this woman, this mother of the noblest man the world has ever seen.

Braubach then speaks of the poverty of students, even those in fraternities, most of which live on less than 300 Marks a month. These conditions, combined with the fact that this impressionable youth is being educated by anti-Semitic professors explain why they are susceptible to anti-Semitic propaganda. The curriculum, which focuses on the war to the detriment of cultural, artistic, and scientific questions, is also to blame. The situation in schools is not much better, especially in the provinces. Many a father has considered pulling their child from public school because they are tired of having him suffer as a scapegoat and punching bag. It is time that a new spirit infuse German education that will educate young people to recognize the humanity in each other and work together for the good of mankind.
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Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Synopsis: Fritz Mordechai Kauffmann, the director of the Workers’ Aid Bureau, died a few days ago at the age of 33. As you might recall, he had recently held a thorough report on “Problems of Eastern Jewish Aid in Germany” at the Central Aid Committee conference. His death signifies a heavy loss for the organization.

Berlin. Synopsis: A new political party has recently been founded under the leadership of the German nationalist publicist, Richard Kunze. It bears the name, “German-social Party.” Its stated goal is the destruction of Jewish hegemony in Germany.”

Görlitz. An Evening with Lewinsky. Synopsis: The local “Workgroup of Jewish Associations” held an evening of recitations from the works of Jewish authors by Siegfried Lewinsky of the Dresden Staatstheater. Among the pieces were “Schlaflied für Mirijam” by Richard Beer-Hoffmann, the prayer scene from “Dorfzaddik” by Shalom Asch, and Peretz’s “Reb Joschenen Gabaj,” and in closing, the humor of Shalom Aleichem’s “Rat.”

Königsberg. Synopsis: At a meeting of the Association for Jewish History and Literature, Berthold Lazar spoke on “The Cultural Works of Jewish Law” where he highlighted that Jewish law has a different foundation from the law of other peoples. It developed at the same time as the historical development of the people, determining its fate through centuries behind the ghetto walls to the threshold of the present and prevented the Jewish people’s moral decline. No other law has this longevity. Built on the laws of Sinai, its binding power results from the ability to harken back to God’s will as revealed to Modes. It has the principle of individual freedom such that parents don’t have absolute power over their children or their slaves. It was the first to emancipate women. In stark contrast to the laws of all other ancient peoples, Jewish law demonstrates strong social tendencies, an example of which is the lovely institution of the work-free Sabbath. It differentiates itself through the mild treatment of debtors. It held marriage highly. Its punishments were humane, the punishment being relative to the motives behind the deed. This thousands of years old culture is reflected in the Talmud, which today is still valid for the people of the East.

Tilsit. Ritual Sugar for Passover. Synopsis: The local German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation protests that Jews receive extra sugar rations at Easter time. However, Jews do not receive extra sugar. A portion of the region’s sugar rations will be prepared according to kosher regulations.

An anti-Semitic Convention. Synopsis: Representatives from Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland will hold a conference in Vienna (March 11 to 13) to speak about the position of Jews in their countries and the degree of their influence.

Professor Theodor Nöldeke, a renowned orientalist who specialized in ancient Semitic philology recently completed his 85th year. Highly respected by Jewish rabbinical scholars, he was a personal friend of Abraham Geiger. The editors wish him many years of good health and contentment.

From the Province.

Upper Silesian Plebiscite. Synopsis: Various organizations have consolidated under the leadership of Mr. Loewy (Bank Director) to assist Jewish voters in the upcoming election. Over 300 volunteers are prepared to offer assistance at all Breslau train stations where they will be distributing warm meals. For help with lodging, contact Bertha Kober. Interested volunteers should contact Miss Emmi Guttmann. Rabbi Dr. Cohn is responsible for religious matters. Since over half of qualified German Jewish voters reside in Berlin, Rabbi Dr. E. Munk will be participating as well. In Berlin, warm meals will be available at the Jewish Dining Hall (Auguststraβe 16). In Upper Silesia arrangements for kosher meals have been made in coordination with the German plebiscite committee. Those requiring kosher meals should register with the synagogue in the town where they will be voting. Contacts are Arthur Altmann in Beuthen, Paul Cohn in Gleiwitz, Rabbi Dr. Kaatz in Hindenburg, Bruno Altmann in Kattowitz, Rabbi Dr. Goldschmidt in Königshütte, Preacher Rawitscher in Kreuzburg, Rabbi Dr. Baβfreund in Myslowitz, Max Weisler in Nikolai, Joachim Simonsohn in Sandowitz, Cantor Getzow in Sohrau, and Rabbi Dr. in Tarnowitz.

On Death

A light conversation by Dr. Ludwig Davidsohn.
Synopsis: Countless books have been written about death; death is the most thought about subject, yet it is still so little understood. Davidsohn describes a few literary reflections on death by German-Jewish writers to support his thesis that thoughts of death cause the sensitive Jewish soul endless sorrow and paralyzing melancholy. He turns to the Epic of Gilgamesh and its pessimistic portrayal of death. This view of death distinguishes the Semitic culture from the other cultures of the time, which never depict death as terrible. Instead it often appears as the brother of sleep. In the book of Job and in the Kohelet one finds echoes of death’s portrayal in Gilgamesh, however without Enkidu’s pessimism. As Jewish literature distances itself from the Bible, it occupies itself more with the dark mystery of death, as shown in Talmudic writings and Hassidic ghost stories. Davidsohn explores non-Jewish literature for treatments of death as well, highlighting Maurice Maeterlinck.

Whether man’s thoughts and emotions are immortal, we do not know. However, we know that matter does not die as such, rather nature uses it to form new compositions. Death is never absolute annihilation; everywhere there is resurrection and renewal, as observed by natural historians. Why should man doubt that all rules of nature apply to him as well? To the poet in the Bible who wrote, “Dust you are and to dust you shall return,” we can say, “and what’s wrong with that dust since God (with respect to nature) uses it in a continuous creative process?
Just as matter is eternal so are ideas. Davidsohn reads the sayings of Lao-Tzu or the writings of the prophets and encounters their ancient wisdom reaching out over the centuries. When a writer like Barbusse writes that the horrors of war make him question the meaning of life, he takes a short-sighted and ego-centric view. Mankind needs these biological explosions to achieve a higher form of life. As Hegel maintains, all existence is an upward-moving spiral. Those who live in these dismal times must keep in mind that transitoriness has its good sides and the malicious foolishness of the entente diplomats will in the future elicit only a disdainful smile.

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Jubilee. Synopsis: Preacher and instructor Jakob Bähr celebrates his twenty-fifth year serving the congregation of Waldenburg. He was educated by Professor Brann and now leads the Union of Israelite Teachers in Silesia.

Myslowitz. Synopsis: Another announcement about registering for kosher meals during the election and a brief notice that head cantor and religion teacher, Sandau celebrated his 25th anniversary of service to the local community on March 1.

Local Events.

On the passing of Rabbi Dr. Rosenthal.

Rabbi Dr. Ferdinand Rosenthal died at the age of 83 after a brief illness. He was born into a respected scholarly family in Kenesa (Hungary) in 1838, attended preparatory school in Eisenstadt and Vienna, and studied philosophy, oriental languages, ancient history, and rabbinical literature at the University of Berlin. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1866 at the University of Leipzig, he became a rabbi Easter [“Ostern”] 1867 in Beuthen (Upper Silesia) where he served for twenty years as pastor and head of the Jewish elementary school. He was active throughout the Upper Silesian industrial region. In 1887 he was called by the Breslau congregation to serve as the lead pastor for the Old Synagogue on Wallstraβe where he served for 33 years before retiring merely half a year ago because of his advanced age.

What Dr. Rosenthal meant to his congregation, to Judaism at all, can be better validated by more worthy sources. With all those to whom he was dear, we too stand at his graveside realizing that he was one of the great figures in the Jewish world [“Israel”].

The memorial service took place on Tuesday in the Old Synagogue on Wallstraβe, the site of the departed’s activity. The large space was densely filled in which despite the bright sun shining in through the dome, was resplendent under the flames of the candelabra. At the sides of the coffin in front of the high altar stood the members of the Jewish student fraternity holding their flags stood watch.

The service began at 1 o’clock with the choir singing. Dr. Simonsohn stepped to the podium. In warm, deeply-felt words he painted a picture of the noble man, showing him in his deep piety, his sincere goodness and humility, his accomplished scholarship that had made him a leader and teacher of this great congregation, whose venerable pastor he had been for over a generation. After him spoke Dr. Hoffmann who had been elected as Dr. Rosenthal’s successor hastened to pay his last respects to his master and friend. He too emphasized the learned man’s unique ability to wear the three crowns—the crown of the Torah that made him a teacher, the crown of the royal priest, that he wore at the altar, and the crown of the good name, which he earned through his exemplary life. The part of him that is mortal will return to dust, but the divine that emanated from him will continue to have an effect and will live on forever.

Accompanied by the choir singing, the coffin was carried out followed by the procession of mourners. First were the university students, then the students and teachers from the religion school and behind the hearse came the rabbis and a countless number of mourners. They moved slowly through the streets until they arrived at the Lohestraβe cemetery hall where another choir greeted the coffin. There Dr. Vogelstein held the eulogy. He praised the exceptional pastor [“Seelsorger”] who was able to maintain unity and peace in the congregation and spoke words of comfort to the family members who could be justifiably proud to be able to call this precious life one of their own. After him spoke Rabbi Dr. Margolies from Florence who was the deceased son-in-law. Counselor Hirschberg and Professor Wohlauer spoke as representatives of the synagogue’s board of directors. Then followed speech after speech by representatives of other congregations and the many associations to which the deceased had belonged, and his students and friends as well as the B’nai B’rith Lessing Lodge of which he had once been president on whose behalf spoke Master Timmendorfer from Berlin.

The evening was sending out its shadows when the coffin was finally carried to the grave. The fraternity slowly lowered its flags over him once more; then he disappeared into the depths. The clumps of earth rained down to cover the earthly remains of a man to whom love had built a lasting monument in many hearts and whose memory will continue to live in his congregation and in all who knew him.

10-year celebration of the founding of the Jewish Craftsmen’s Association. Synopsis: The celebration took place in the Lessing Lodge accompanied by chorus and harmonium. Speeches were held by Master Butcher Grunpeter and Louis Wolff. The Jewish man, who in his own land had worked in every profession was banned from guilds in the middle ages. With the emancipation, exterior barriers fell, but Jews turned mostly to the intellectual careers for material reasons. Craftsmanship is now weakly developed mostly because of social reasons. But in the last decades there’s been a change where the accomplishments of Jewish craftsmen are being recognized. They have organized and have a common goal of attracting youth to the trades. Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein cited the passages from the Talmud and Mishnah that praised craftsmanship and noted that the great teachers and researchers had earned their keep and funded their studies through work in the trades. Ignaz Walsh represented the synagogue congregation’s leadership. Martin Fränkel spoke on behalf of the Israelite Hospital and Attorney Spitz on behalf of the Liberal Association. The veterans union and neighboring craftsmen’s organizations also expressed their congratulations. The celebration concluded with a dance and artistic entertainment.

An Evening of Arias, Ballads, and Lieder by Richard Rodek.

Synopsis: This aggreable young singer apparently still has a lot of development to undergo, although he performed Hermann’s “Salomo” and the shorter, lyrical Lieder quite well. The critic looks forward to hearing him again. The accompanist, Franz Czerny, technically adept and discrete, received a lukewarm review.
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Family Announcements.

Engagements: Grete Schindler with Hermann Goldberger (Breslau); Luzie Imbach (Gleiwitz) with Jacques Walter (Breslau); Käthe Halberstam (Berlin) with Dr. Heinrich Hepner (Berlin-Schöneberg); Delia Gerson mit Leo Dzialowski (Brelsau); Käte Müller with Curt Jacoby (Breslau); Else Pincus with Leo Eilenberg (Breslau); Frieda Forder with Gustav Süβmann (Breslau).

Marriages: Friederich Biller… with Edith Zepler (Breslau); Alfred Katz with Hedwig Banasch (Flatow in West Prussia); Lutz Juliusburger with Else Memisohn (Breslau); Curt Löwy with Frieda Stein (Breslau).

Births. Son: Engineer Alfred Fischer and Margarete nee Riesenfeld (Breslau); Bruno Lipschütz and Grete nee Echstein (Troppau); Dr. E. W. Müller and Käthe nee Staub (Berlin).
Daughter: Emil Fraenkel and Käthe nee Pätzold (Breslau); Adolf S.l.ts and Elly nee Samuel (Beuthen, Upper Silesia).

Deaths: Anna Fingerhut nee Peiser (Breslau); Abraham Raphael (Berlin); Balbina Schreiber (Schrimm); Luise Altmann nee Jeremias (Kattowitz, Upper Silesia); Mortiz Warschauer (Breslau); Bernard Ksinski (Breslau); Leo Lebram (Breslau); Paula Prinz (Berlin); Marie Schlesinger nee Berger (Breslau); Mathilde Glück nee Pick (Breslau); Mortiz Süβmann (Breslau); Elise Grünfeld nee Pinkus (Breslau); Mortiz Schnell (Breslau); Rosalie Sauer nee Ollendorff (Festenberg).

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, March 4, 1921

On the Nationalist German Jew.

by Attorney Erich Spitz (Breslau)
Synopsis: Spitz opens by lamenting how sick the entire “civilized” society has been for the last six and a half years. The causes are many, but one thing that the “peace” of the Versailles Treaty has made clear is that one of the more significant ones is an exaggerated sense of nationalism. He goes on to contrast nationalism with the healthier sense of national identity or love of one’s country [“Nationalgefühl”] characterized by love of one’s own kind, the desire to compete with other countries, and the need to maintain honor while doing so and to be of use to all of mankind in parallel. Nationalism is a distortion of these sentiments: it strives for power and domination of other countries; it is brutal to the point of being nihilistic. Two things could heal a society made sick by nationalism: the cultivation of love of country and a healthy sense of internationalism that binds peoples together.

Nationalism is on the rise, not only among the western, victorious countries, but it is also starting to creep into conquered Germany where it expresses itself in a hatred of Jews. The “Deutschnationale Volkspartei” has trampled on its conservative tradition and adopted as its slogan: “Down with Jews!”

While Jews have been noted for their conservatism, they are not typically nationalistic, perhaps because of innate skepticism, but certainly because of historical experience when they were the victims of nationalism. This does not mean, however, that Jews don’t have a sense of national identity with Germany, as has often been claimed in the last fifty years. Certainly, the fact that Jews have descended into the bloodbath of the war should prove otherwise. In recent years it was easy to earn the designation of “un-national”: anyone who criticized the war or taxation, didn’t wear their beard a certain way, was an aetheist or dissident, or voted socialist—and naturally, all Jews were “un-national.”

Spitz maintains that these accusations do not only stem from anti-Semites, but also from within the Jewish ranks as evidenced by a publication by the lawyer, Max Naumann, “On the national-German Jew.” Naumann divides Judaism into three groups: the Zionists, the middleground, and the national German Jews. He dismisses the Zionists because they are on their way to Palestine. The middle tier lives in a kind of purgatory between the Zionists and the national-German heaven. Naumann ascribes traits to them that resemble the claims of anti-Semites. Spitz’s criticism of Naumann’s idealization of the national-German Jew is harsh. Naumann apparently praises the Jew who is not ashamed of Judaism. He apparently contradicts himself by citing as a parallel example the French Huguenots who married into pure German families until their French heritage was but a dusty memory. Spitz maintains that this dusty memory is what Judaism is for Naumann. Naumann further angers Spitz by asserting that religion is no longer what should bind Jews together. This belief is revealed in Naumann’s description of the Eastern Jewish question—the Eastern Jew is a stranger, and nothing more than a stranger—in sympathies, in spirit, even physically. When a nation-German Jew hears of their misfortunes, they are struck with pity, as they would be when hearing of any peoples’ mistreatment, such as the lynchings in America.
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Spitz on the other hand claims the victims of these pogroms as his brothers and sisters. He wonders whether in the last fifty years many German Jews have been too quick to adopt German culture while throwing off their traditions. He believes the young generation will have to fight the ensuing rootlessness in that it becomes more Jewish and calmly and steadily integrates organically into the German homeland and its people.

Tzedakah.

by Dr. Leo Baeck (Berlin).
Synopsis: “Judaism discovered the concept of the fellow man.” In this piece, Dr. Baeck associates the concept of care for one’ s fellow man with justice. He asserts that it is God who made every man to be one’s fellow man, one’s brother, one’s neighbor—not our own will or inclination and not society or law. He closes by portraying the ideal society as one being based on tzedakah.

Luck.

An everyday story by Bidsche Hohnsalz (Zehlendorf).
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Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Synopsis: At a meeting of the Liberal Association for the Concerns of the Jewish Community in Berlin, Rabbi Dr. Baeck explained in a very well-received lecture that all Jews must work together on the development of Palestine. Jewish Palestine is a fact, even if all German Jews failed to contribute. Germany’s 600,000 Jews could very well become isolated from the world’s 10 Million Jews. Rabbi Dr. Baeck expects that the renewal of Judaism in Palestine will enrich religious, liberal Jewish thought. From Palestine, Jewish ideas could be broadcast to the world with greater justification and authority.

München. Synopsis: The election committee of the liberal Jews of Bavaria, Munich chapter distance themselves from the newly founded Jewish “Volkspartei,” which they claim represents only the Zionist and orthodox points of view.

Braunschweig. Synopsis: A case of anti-Semitic vandalism of a veteran’s grave was reported—a swastika was painted on the tombstone.

Frankfurt a. M. The International League of Women for Peace and Freedom in Geneva made a request of the League of Nations that it take a stand against the persecution of Jews in the Ukraine. Authoritative Jewish organizations have accused Ukrainians of having committed the most horrific massacre that has ever taken place in modern times. Countless individuals have been killed, women raped, pogroms organized and conducted with official permission. As a measure against these horrors the International League of Women demands that the League of Nation denies the Ukraine membership until it guarantees that it will grant minorities the same security and rights as the majority.

Königshütte. Synopsis: Kosher meals will be available to all during the elections.

From Abroad.

Jewish Liberalism in Posen.

Synopsis: The Posen Jewish newspaper which is still being published in this formerly German region provides evidence that Jewish liberalism continues to thrive there.

Vienna. Synopsis: One of the largest Alpine associations has declared that from voted on a motion to allow only members that are Germans of Aryan descent. The vote was 1253 for and 653 against so the motion did not pass as it required a 3/4 majority.

Local Events.

The Liberal Association of Syngogue Congregations. Synopsis: A beer evening will feature good food, full-bodied beer, speeches and toasts, songs, an American auction, and a raffle.

Representatives Assembly. Synopsis: At the last meeting Dr. Klein (Chemnitz) and Davidsohn (Berlin) were elected as religion teachers.

Synopsis: The German Jews’ Central Aid Committee has begun publishing instructive essays about important charitable initiatives under the title “Tzedakah.” The piece by Rabbi Dr. Beck published in this issue is an example of this worthwhile content. A subscription to “Tzedakah” is recommended.

Synopsis: A few more companies have asked to be removed from the notorious list created by the German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation.

Colorful Evening

Arranged by the Union of Eastern Jews.
Synopsis: The evening was held as a fundraiser for Jewish refugees. Joseph Halpern started the entertainment by reciting three poems and later performing a comedic routine. Marga Dannenberg sang an aria from “Samson and Delilah,” Grieg Lieder, and a duet from “Tosca” with Adolf Löltgen who went on to sing Schumann Lieder and some cabaret pieces. Hans Faber, dressed in a Pierrot costume performed comedy. Miss Knepel sang duets from the operettas “Geisha” and the “Loyal Farmer.”

Associations and Assemblies.

The Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization. Synopsis: On February 7, Emil Waldstein reported on the recent founding of the Central Organization of German Jewry, the challenges that were faced, especially around the question of allowing foreigners the right to vote. On February 14, Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein spoke on the theme of “God and Man,” the central concept of the Jewish religion being the relationship between God and man, ethics being a more important source than the idea of monotheism. The ethical is sustained by justice and love, both being attributes of God. The human soul is created pure with the capability for good as well as for evil, unlike the Christian teaching that mankind is born with original sin and saved by Christ’s sacrificial death. On February 21, Dr. Fränkel spoke on German Jewry at the beginning of the 19th century and on February 28, Mr. Brienitzer began his lecture series on the Jewish question in Germany.
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League of Jewish Women, Breslau chapter. Synopsis: The chapter met on February 22. Miss Röschen Cohn greeted the assembly with a speech written by Miss R. Urbach. Then Mrs. Ollendorf described the league’s history and goals, warmly promoting its high ideals. With subtle sarcasm she touched upon the tendency toward materialism of some Jewish circles. The article’s author wanted to point out the Breslau chapter’s initiatives such as founding a home for Jewish children born out of wedlock.

Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith. Synopsis: On February 17 Professor Goldstein (Darmstadt) spoke on “Modern Racial Theory.” Important Christian fellow citizens had been invited to attend. See issue 10 for a thorough report on this topic.

The Association of Independent Jewish Craftsmen, Breslau chapter celebrated its 10th anniversary.

Association of Poseners. Synopsis: An evening of entertainment was held on February 23 at which Dr. Teichmann presented slides of Italy.

Family Announcements

Engagements: Edith Cohn (Charlottenburg) with Walter Horwitz (Berlin); Gisela Cohn with Manfred Metzner (Breslau); Berta Levy with Leo Berger (Loslau, Upper Silesia).

Marriages: Heinrich Golden with Luise Koch (Obernigk); Viktor Mannheim with Käthe Dobschützer (Dyhernfurth); Hans Neuländer with Erna Lust (Danzig); Hans Rothstein with Toni Dressel (Breslau); Berthold Riesenfeld with Helene Freund (Breslau); Salvador Hopp with Margot Badrian (Guatemala); Harmann Salinger with Frieda Bergmann (Neumarkt, Silesia); Arthur Kahl with Gertrud Sklarz (Breslau).

Births: Son: Kurt Budwig and Margarete nee Philipp (Breslau); Richard Wiener and Annie nee Müller (Breslau).
Daughter: Arthur Leβheim and Herta nee Fleischer (Breslau); Siegmund Günzberger and Else nee Jenderkoy (Breslau); Bruno Wechselmann and Paula nee Leβ (Breslau); Attorney Dr. Kurt Weiβ and Grete nee Bab (Breslau); Kurt Schweitzer and Margot nee Stein (Kattowitz).

Deaths: Ella Friedmann (Breslau); Abraham Cohn (Breslau); Bernhard Guttmann (Breslau); Salo Licht (Breslau); Heinz Kohn (Katscher, Upper Silesia); Martin Guttmann (Breslau); Salo Weiβenberg (Breslau).

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, February 25, 1921

Israel.

by Rabbi Dr. B. Gottschalk (Posen).
Synopsis: Gottschalk explores what binds liberal Jews to Judaism. He points to the meaning of the name “Israel,” one who has fought with God, as what distinguishes liberal Jews from other Jews. All Jews can say of themselves that they live and die “with God,” but liberal Jews can say that they have “fought with God and won.” The difference is that other Jews feel bound to God and wish only to do what he commanded. Liberal Jews, however, struggle with God, just as Moses, the prophets, and Maimonides did, into our modern times. Liberal Jews do not feel bound to God and do not bring sacrifices of intellect, insight, or piety—they bring their hearts as a sacrifice. They do not allow what and how they feel to be prescribed. Only when their innermost being says “yes” to God does he become their God.

Steinthal recognized that the hesitance to engage critically with the concept of God marked a childlike stage in belief which persisted until the previous century when Cohen tried to bring God closer to us by describing him as the God of morality, the power behind goodness, the God of reason. Cohen did not convince many. This image of God could warm only those who shared his intellectualism. What lives now in thousands of hearts is the “God-feeling” [“Gottesgefühl”]. Their reason has dismissed the legend of heaven; their knowledge has revealed the power of nature and with that dethroned the old God. But the heart was left empty. In these hearts the struggle for an anchor, a focus, or a goal takes place which then takes the form of a search for God. Finding him is the liberals’ revelation and their burning bush.

Liberals are not trying to intellectualize God by shedding traditions but by recognizing that he fills their hearts and souls and from their guides everything—how they honor, love, and worship him.

In that struggle, liberals go beyond Judaism, but there is no thought to leave Judaism. They see that the essence of Judaism is not what God has taught, but to test what they have learned from God. For them, the essence of the prophets and the psalmists are not that they speak of God, but that God has spoken from them.

The pains and joys of the other Jews are still felt by liberal Jews. Their religious experiences are profoundly Jewish, which is why they love the holidays and customs and the Bible and support institutions that foster Jewish religious life. This is why they fight for Jewish honor and decry baptism.

The liberal Jews do want to create a synthesis between Judaism and culture, but not sacrifice Judaism to culture. They do not want to merge it with other religions, but they do want it to shine as a beacon for other religions that have lagged in developing their concept of God. They see the time of the Messiah not as erasing all religious differences but as bringing all religions closer. Gottschalk distances liberalism from the free-religionists and the non-denominational movement and concludes that liberals are indeed religious Jews, Jews that fight for, with, and about God and thus indeed now and always “Israelites.”

“The Truth about Russia.”

The Horror in Ukraine
Synopsis: This article details horrific massacres of Jews. The official reports of a Red Cross committee document that tens of thousands of Jews have been murdered and hundreds of thousands have been abused, raped, or robbed.
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Aus dem Reich.

After the Elections.

Synopsis: The most anti-Semitic party, the “Deutschnationale Volkspartei,” did well throughout Prussia in the state parliamentary elections. The article calls for unity among Jewish groups—liberal, orthodox, Zionist, centrist, or German nationalist.

Berlin. Synopsis: The liberal faction of the Representatives’ Assembly responded to a proposal that a committee representing all groups be formed to consider the question of Jewish schools by declaring that they would consider Jewish schools only if it were impossible to address the religious educational needs of Jewish children in state schools.

Berlin. Synopsis: Pastor of St. Simeon’s, Hermann von Wicht spoke on “Equal Rights or Sedition” at the local chapter meeting of Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith. He lamented the rise of anti-Semitism after the war and how the masses are easily influenced by slogans.

Berlin.Synopsis: 1919-1920 was a successful year for the Berlin Free School for Continuing Education with 5,000 attending circa 100 courses taught by rabbis, professors, and professional men and women. Courses covered the Bible and Talmud, religion and history, literature and art, economics and current events.

Berlin. Synopsis: 6,000 (50%) voted in recent student union elections. Of the 100 available seats, the German folkish groups won 56. The liberal Jewish group won 4, and the Zionists won 5. Socialists and other left-leaning groups won the rest.
Berlin.Synopsis: Professor Julius Guttmann spoke on Spinoza’s relationship to Judaism at the Institute for the Scientific Study of Judaism.

From My Notebook.

by Ludwig Davidsohn.
A selection of aphorisms.

Jews in China.

Synopsis: Professor Dr. Stübe (Leipzig) reported on Judaism in China in the “General Newspaper” which this article republishes excerpts. Stübe cites as his main source the work of Bruno Schindler who recently journeyed to China to study these communities.

Jews settled in China as merchants and while they have retained their religion, they often look very Chinese in their costumes, manners, and attitudes. There are two major settlements: near Beijing and Kaifeng (Henan province). Kaifeng was the capital of the Song dynasty (960-1278) and suffered heavily from wars and catastrophic flooding during the Ming dynasty. Kaifeng’s downturn caused many to leave the city, including much of its Jewish community which dispersed throughout the empire. Only the poorest stayed and today only about 1,000 remain in a community with a charismatic, albeit violent, leader.
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Leipzig. Synopsis: Investiture of a Rabbi. The newly elected Rabbi, Dr. Cohn, formely of Krotoschin was ceremoniously installed. He was escorted into the synagogue by his colleague, Rabbi Dr. Goldmann and the board members in a procession accompanied by organ music. He was welcomed at the podium and gave his first sermon.

Stuttgart. Synopsis: Obituary for Nathan Levi, lawyer and notary, and founding member of the democratic party in Württemberg in 1864 with Julius Hauβmann, Karl Mayer, and Ludwig Pfau with whom he remained close friends.

Allenstein. The General Assembly of the Association of Jewish Congregations in East Prussia made the following declaration on February 6: The exemplary peaceful mutual understanding of the congregations of our province is being greatly threatened by abuse aimed at Jews. The Association as elected representatives of East Prussian Jews makes the strongest appeal. This abuse is marked by religious strife and a race war that severely damages the reconstruction of the fatherland and must call on the sense of justice of all citizens.

Myslowitz. Synopsis. Chief cantor and religion instructor, Jakob Spandau, celebrates 25 years of service.

Press Roundup.

Hepp, Hepp, Hurrah!

Excerpts from Ignaz Wrobel’s [one of Kurt Tucholsky’s pseudonyms] article that appeared in “Welt am Montag.”

Anti-Semitic paranoia in Germany reminds one of the romantic excitement of French nationalists who found the Boche and his spies behind every wrong in the world. Here, nothing can go wrong without the monocled faces of those who are too big for their britches blaming Jews for everything. Films are bad because Jews made them; groceries are expensive because Jews are cheating; the press is run by Jews, and we lost the war because Jews were secretly undermining the Front. Now Ludendorff was not a Jew, and I didn’t know that many Jews were in the German diplomatic corps as Germany lunged into the war. These upstanding men have even figured out that in Wilhelm II’s veins flowed some Jewish blood which is why rabble was elected and the world fell into misfortune. Hepp, hepp, hurrah!

What’s going on here is the worst kind of dumbing down of the masses. Roda Roda’s old saying fits like a glove here: “Anti-Semitism. . . a nice thing, but nothing will come of it until the Jews get involved!”

What these sad-faced knights would do if they didn’t have Jews is almost unthinkable. They live off of them! And hardly a single one of their arguments works.

A mixed people like the Germans that are a peculiar blend of Vandals, Kashubians, Poles, and a shot of Lowland Saxons that never formed a unified Germanic race has no right to complain about racial mixing.
Nothing works. The accusation that Jews are in charge of public life is an admission of weakness. The French illustrator, Caran d’Ache once drew a country lane on which a Jew and a Frenchman met. In between them lay a franc. Both were bending toward it at the same time. “Mais c’est le juif qui aura le franc!” (But it’s the Jew who’ll get the money.”) Accusing the Jews of price-gouging in the face of the behavior of German agriculture that is systematically sabotaging the large cities is an absurdity.
For every Schmuhl there are ten Piesekes and what the Grenadier Street can do on a small scale, Herr Stinnes do on a large one.

Without the Jews, the elections are no fun at all for the German nationalist. Without the Jews, he couldn’t lead them! He only leads them because there are a whole lot of people who differ from parrots only in that they aren’t so pretty to look at. The petit bourgeois Hausfrau, many mid-level civil servants, the small-town social elite—all have a lumpish anger at the mentally nimble Jew and are ecstatic at the chance to score one against their irritating competitors. No one senses how bad he makes his fatherland look if he admits that the ghastly influence of its Jews can destroy a whole country. The worst proponents of the war weren’t the Jews; rather they were the stakeholder officers and civil servants, the Teutonic professors and women who with their loud mouths brought this country into this misfortune. A misfortune that one now wants to ascribe to the Jews.

If the German Nationalist Party weren’t so brainlessly dumb to be anti-Semitic, a large segment of the Jews with natural conservative tendencies would have joined it; yes, I even know some instances of Jews who forgot honor long enough to vote German Nationalist.

But folkish students, foresters, and physical education teachers don’t think that deeply. The chest of German men swells, the beard speckled with lentils blows in the wind, heroic German songs trill in the air, that put the Welsch [?], the Jews, and the Blacks on the same level, just because they’re not German. Overemphasizing national uniqueness has always been a weakness.

“Don’t buy from Jews!”—Now that’s a campaign slogan for the thinking man. It creates a trusted unitied front, and the Bavarian beerlover, the East Prussian schnapps distiller, the Rhineland industrialist—suddenly they all fight loyally together, shoulder to shoulder. I have nothing against collective judgements, that are always unjust and yet sometimes just. “The Jew”…that’s right and wrong, because one doesn’t mean the individual, but the stereotype. It’s a judgement about the whole, for example like, “The German officer was useless in the war; the German judge isn’t trusted by the people in political trials; the Prussian bureaucrat tends to value his writing apparatus more than the common good.”

“Don’t buy from Jews!” But they buy. This anti-Semitism melts away when it comes to doing business, and no German Nationalist grafter is embarrassed by doing a deal with some Jew from Lodz in the export trade. If during the war the officer had been embarrassed to get help from the residents of Galician towns to help him smuggle his three hundred eggs as a “radio,” maybe the humble Jews could have learned something from him. He wasn’t embarrassed.

That’s what lost a war. We still don’t know today that a world which used to do so with hatred, now simply shrugs its shoulders with disdain and steps over traits that are stood up as virtues to the children here.

Reconstruction of the Economic Life of Russia’s Jews

Synopsis: Excerpts of a report published in the “Israelitisches Familienblatt.” Over 1 million Jews are among the living victims of war in Russia. International aid organizations are now receiving cooperation from local authorities so that raw materials, tools, credit, and funds can be used to create jobs. Signs of progress are visible and the labor market has become more stable. New leaders promise that they will not tolerate pogroms. In the agricultural sector, similar progress is being made. For example, in Lithuania the number of Jewish farmers has risen from 5% to 11%. Jewish refugees from White Russia have been forming communes. Much of this growth can be traced back to the work of the JCA (Jewish Colonization Association) from 1899 to 1918.

From the Art Collection of Berlin’s Jewish Congregations.

Synopsis: Albert Wolf’s collection (Dresden) forms the core of the exhibit. The most interesting pieces were paintings from Poland and Russia: Genre paintings, important personages, locales, and historical paintings, including Samuel Hirszenberg’s painting, “Colus.” Etchings by Mundlack, Struck, Budko, and Friedmann hung amid drawings and paintings of other artists. The exhibit also included Jewish furnishings and religious art: curtains, Torah bands, Hanukkah lamps, Purim plates, and spice boxes. One case holds Haggadah illustrations and other calligraphic art, including that of Isidor Rothziegel, which are displayed in public for the first time. There is also a “Berlin Room” with a series of pieces on Moses Mendelssohn and his circle. This room also holds a valuable rug from 1590 on loan from the Old Synagogue and a menorah from 1713.
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p. 4

Local Events.

Synopsis: An evening of arias, art songs, and ballads will be presented by Richard Rodek, accompanied on the piano by Franz Czerny, on March 2.

Synopsis: A few weeks ago, the German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation started publishing the “Schlesische Volksstimme,” which is distributed for free, especially at train stations.

An interesting and instructive lecture on “The Nibelungenlied in German Literature with an Emphasis on Richard Wagner’s ‘Ring des Nibelungen’” will be held by the well-known Breslau writer, Maria Renee Daumas… Maria Renee Daumas, although now completely German, comes from an old French noble family from Marseille with Jewish blood in its veins and which distinguished itself with its sympathy for the sad fate of Jews. When Jews were expelled from Marseille in the 15th century, a Pascal, Duke de Daumas was responsible for letting the victims keep their trading rights for an additional 110 years.

The Liberal Association of Synagogue Congregations named its long-serving, highly deserving board member, who as reported recently passed away, Hugo Jacobson, to perpetual membership. – On Thursday, March 10, the Liberal Association is holding a gentlemen’s beer evening as a pre-celebration of Purim and to foster personal relationships among its members.

Engagements. Elfriede Fink, nee Schlesinger, Neisse, with Pharmacist Berhard Ucko, Groβ-Strehlitz, Upper Silesia; Alice Landsberger, Charlottenburg, with Hugo Goldmann, Berlin; Ilse Wolff, Dobrzyoa (Posen), with Paul Jacob (Printing Press Owner) Wüstegiersdorf; Alma Stoβmann with Leo Neumann, Breslay; Rose Rosenthal, Breslau, with Oskar Wagner, Militsch.

Marriages. Franz Behmack, Bunzlau, with Berta Preuβ, Löwenberg, Silesia; Sigmar Weiβ wwith Flora Borchardt, Breslau; Attorney Dr. Ernst Marcus with Lucie Ritter, Breslau.

Births. Son. Curt Lisser and Hanni nee Haller, Breslau; Max Centatver and Cläre, nee Pollack, Königshütte Upper Silesia; Fritz Wechselmann and Charlotte, nee Drescher, Breslau; Siegbert Zacharias and Lotte, nee Austerlitz, Bremen.
Daughter: Dentist Arthur Schüfftan and Sophie, nee Schüfftan, Breslau; Assessor Dr. Hans Gabriel and Lotte, nee Kohn, Breslau.

Deaths. Hulda Kochmann, ne Tischler, Breslau; Julius Kareski, Kattowitz; Berthold Marcousy, Landsberg, Upper Silesia; Johanna Böhm, nee Flichter, Breslau; Berta Efrem, nee Katz, Hamburg; Julius Salomon, Breslau; Helene Gotthilf, nee Jacoby, Breslau; Berta Schreuer, nee Glaser, Berlin; Berthold Spanier, Berlin; Siegismund Münzer, Breslau; Moritz Fuchs, Breslau; Baruch Colkt, Breslau; Alfred Berliner, Ratibor; Sally Altmann, Breslau.

Announcements and Adverisements.

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, February 18, 1921

Socialism und Judaism.

by Dr. Walter Brinitzer, Chemnitz
Synopisis: Socialism is frequently spoken of, but little understood. Whenever socialism is seen as negative, it is associated with Judaism. How easy it is to connect two things which we don’t comprehend. In order to understand the relationship of Judaism to Socialism, we must go beyond looking at why individual Jews have been drawn to socialism (as Blüher does) and systematically look at Judaism and Socialism.

Brinitzer states that Socialism’s goal is to bring as much of our external lives under the governance of the state as possible, thereby relieving poverty and concern about meeting physical needs. Socialism will force mankind to be happy, underscoring that socialism takes a materialist view of the world. Thus, a socialist state will build its laws on material interests, not on the principle of justice.

The Jewish religion’s stance on using force to satisfy mankind and doing away with personal property conflicts with socialism. Brinitzer cites the 8th Commandment, “Thou shalt not steal,” as evidence of Judaism’s respect for the right to private ownership. The Bible emphasizes that mankind’s most valuable possession is personal freedom, which is in opposition to a system where the government can abrogate personal freedom. A central tenet of Judaism is, however, to bring the personal freedom of all individuals to bear on the well-being of the whole of society. One should exercise one’s freedom to choose to do good.

Refuting that materialism and socialism have an intrinsic connection to Judaism, Brinitzer considers an apparently opposite system, namely a theocracy based on the religious principles of Judaism. He sees theocracy as being just as opposed to the essence of Judaism, but in this case, the state attempts to use force to rule the interior condition of mankind. He concludes that theocracy and socialism have much in common. Judaism on the other hand encourages the actualization of morality and ethics on earth as a matter of an individual’s personal choice, which Brinitzer sees as a Messianic ideal. The kingdom of the Messiah is not that of an individual ruler, rather it is the rule of holiness, of perfect morality. And because Judaism is an ethics-based religion, the road to the kingdom of heaven is not prescribed by a theocracy, but because it honors mankind’s nobility, it leaves it to individual self-determination inspired by a living faith.
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p. 2

Misery and Aid.

by Felix Heimann
Synopsis: The insanity of the enemy wants to squeeze over 200 billion Goldmarks from our poor people. Every German is asking himself, “How do we save our people, our country?” Heimann’s recommendation is that each person must work, work, and work more. But there are hundreds of thousands without work, especially young people. They were taken in the bloom of youth and sent to suffer hunger, thirst, and death. And hundreds of thousands came back to a starving, freezing country. And that’s what happened to the dream of German students.

Heimann goes on to recommend that more should be done to give students (of all religions) stipends so that they can continue their studies—even though the German universities are rife with anti-Semitism. Only thus will a generation be enabled to work for the fatherland’s salvation.

The newspaper’s editor supports Heimann’s request pointing out that the students that will receive these stipends come from the middle classes, which will lead to having more judges and officials from circles other than the industrialists and landed classes where anti-Semitism is endemic.

He Who Laughs Last . . .

Sketches from the World War by Ino Gaβmann.
From the east, from Gjalstizy, came the continuous thunder of artillery.—It was as though someone were constantly beating on a giant drum.—The whole day they threatened that re-enforcements were coming, … the Russians certainly won’t succeed breaking through here!—
Almost around the clock the carts loaded with wounded come bumping along to our field hospital;–the unfortunate groan and scream when they are—even though so carefully—lifted from the miserable carts with their hasty bandages.
Inside, in the spacious barn, by the light of a stinking petroleum lamp, someone had improvised an operating table from two tavern benches; a Prussian staff doctor, a Russian prisoner named Djoskij who was a doctor and spoke fluent German since he had studied in Germany, and I were feverishly busy bandaging the wounded and carrying out life-saving operations. Today there were an unusually high number of serious cases; we amputated like on a production line. Various wounded died at our hands, one had his windpipe shot through. Even though the staff doctor was able to do a tracheotomy and insert a silver tube, the wounded man suffocated in a horrible way, since the tube kept filling with blood, and we didn’t have the time to unclog it with a feather every half hour.
In the tent next door there were already over a hundred that we had bandaged. Those that could be moved in any way were loaded back onto carts and brought to a larger military hospital around 10 kilometers away. From there they’d be taken home on a medical train.—
The couple of people from our column had their hands full to help our patients, bringing them water and cooking food.
Djoskij and I had to carry the bodies and sawed-off limbs to the morgue ourselves. The morgue was a small tool shed between the barn and the well. I noticed that the Russian showed the dead unusual respect and often elaborately made the sign of the cross over them.—
Well, I didn’t have any time to reflect on it—there was just too much to do. We had been working several days and nights without interruption. The news came that we in a couple of hours we’d be relieved by a Bavarian medical field unit. We could finally rest a bit before we had to march the next day. Where to?—Nobody knew!—
It was already very late,–a warm summer’s night with mild light.—I didn’t want to sleep.—The stars shone above me in an immutable, benevolent calm, as though nothing had happened on earth, and as though mankind had not become crazed with hate and confusion.
I lay in the grass not too far from the barn, listening to the thunder of artillery that still hadn’t stopped and watched the balls of light that, like evil thoughts, shot across the shimmery, violet velvet of the heavens.
What a burning desire I had for the quiet sameness of earlier, peaceful days! How dead tired and beaten down I felt. The terrible wounds and heartbreaking misery I’d seen again these last days!—Certainly I was jaded, but still not completely apathetic, that I didn’t feel the terrible dissonance between the wonderful summer night and the times that seemed to have gone off the rails.
While I stretched out on the ground and smoked my pipe Djoskij came out of the barn and sat down next to me. “Tomorrow it starts all over again,” he said. “I’m to stay with you a while longer, then I’ll get sent to a prison camp. – The tall artilleryman from Danzig just died; –and the private who’s lying in the left corner is in terrible shape:–spinal shot…can’t move anything except for his arms; what the devil…to die that way! – Ah! Finally a little rest! I haven’t had fifteen minutes off for three days!”
I offered him tobacco and a light, and he sat quietly exhaling smoke. We sat like that a long time and looked up at the faint band of the Milky Way that arched above us.
“Tell me, Djoskij,” I asked him. “Why do you show so much respect to the dead? They certainly don’t notice it!—It’s a strange habit of yours.”
“Do you believe,” he answered, “that a corpse doesn’t notice what’s going on around it?”
–“That’s weird question,” I said. “Of course not! Dead is dead!”—
“I’ve had a different experience,” he said and began to tell:
“I was an assistant doctor with a column in the Tschessikoff corps that was eventually assigned to the Rennenkampf corps. – The Russian medical conditions, — and the German conditions, what a difference—like night and day. There we were with our field hospital near Carowitschi…By the way, I’d like to know whatever happened to Doctor Wassilij Wersiew! He got wounded there. He was the only doctor we had ,–a big, strong, blond guy,…but lazy as sin! … No compassion for the wounded; when he had his grog and could flirt with the couple of women that worked at our station, he could give a damn about the injured!—
After the victory over Zuesk, a Polish Jew from Barnow named Leib Rosenblatt was brought to our hospital, which was set up in a farmhouse. He’d been shot in the thigh and the wound was badly dressed. I can still clearly remember his intelligent face and sharply chiseled face. He was a student. He drew my attention with his comical, cheerful demeanour. “I can’t die yet,” he said. “I have my old mother whose everything I am…and then…I’m a…writer…I still have a few things to say to the world…it would be too bad if I died!…And by the way, my wound isn’t so bad;–it would be a scandal if you didn’t pull me through!” I calmed him and chatted with him in the evenings—really, he was a nice, clever boy—always alert and funny!—
The following afternoon I saw to my horror that his bandage was getting wet and his blood seeped out.
I went to Wassilij immediately, the only doctor who had a medical bag with him. But he was in his cups again and was having an animated discussion with a pretty nurse from Moscow . I asked him quickly but politely, “The little Jew has started bleeding; if we could bind off his ateria femoralis we could stop the bleeding and save him. Wassilij sniffed his grog glass and looked at me loathingly. Suddenly we heard Leib Rosenblatt calling loudly from downstairs, “Doctor, Doctor, help me, quickly!” There was a strange, trembling fear in the Jew’s voice; he seemed to know that this was a matter of life and death. Wassilij went to the stairs and in his cold, rough way, aped Leib’s calls for help, then called, “I’m coming!” But first he wanted to finish his grog.—
Just then more ambulances with wounded came and I had to go down and help unload them.—
When I went to Leib a quarter of an hour later, I noticed that he has bled to death. Wassilij hadn’t come down at all or hadn’t gotten to him in time. As I bent over the body, I noticed that the dead man’s face was contorted in anger and rage…
The next day, in the farm’s stall—our morgue—Leib Rosenblatt’s autopsy took place. According to regulations we had to make out a quick autopsy report on every dead soldier.
That’s when the strange thing happened! I will never forget this mystery, even if I live to become an old man! I still remember everything as though it had happened yesterday.—It was half dark in the room. The oil lamp hanging from the ceiling shed only a weak light. Leib Rosenblatt’s corpse lay on the dissection table; Wassilij stood next to it, the field bailiff cut, and I wrote. The three of us were alone. We all noticed the dead man’s face, contorted in displeasure and anger. I noted: ‘the femoral artery torn by a bullet; besides the lack of blood, there are no changes to the corpse’s organs as is usual with death by bleeding…’
After the autopsy we left the stall.—The bailiff brought the papers to the staff office to report back. I stood outside with Wassilij and reproached him, “You could have easily saved poor Rosenblatt!”
The doctor gave me a cynical answer and went back into the autopsy room to get his notebook that he’d left behind. Suddenly I heard a bone-chilling scream…Wassilij stumbled out, his eyes bulging from their sockets with fear. His face was white as chalk—on his cheek were the marks of five fingers—someone must have slapped him hard! Wassilij was still screaming and holding his face, then he just stared and mumbled some unintelligible words. He seemed to have lost his senses.—
My God, there was no one in the autopsy room! I went in. Dead quiet. Leib Rosenblatt, cut from the autopsy, lay there still and peacefully—but on his face was a satisfied smile!—

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p. 3

Aus dem Reich.

On the Elections.

Synopsis: The Prussian state parliamentary elections are approaching. Certainly each will vote according to their conscience, but it would be against Jewish honor and dignity to vote for an anti-Semitic party. This is also for the sake of Germany since hatred of Jews mars Germany’s international reputation.

Berlin. Synopsis: At Tuesday’s meeting of the Association for Defense against Anti-Semitism ReichsministerGothein spoke on “The Effect of German Anti-Semitism on the Rest of the World.” Now is the time for Germans to unite and score moral victories and not appear to fall back into medievalism. Here and there are some with sympathy for vanquished and suffering Germany—anti-Semitism stamps out these positive feelings. Most importantly, anti-Semitism contradicts the sense of justice, truth, and German culture. Von Oppeln-Bronikowski represented the German nationalists, but he also spoke out against anti-Semitism. Only a handful of right-wing radicals participate in anti-Semitic vitriol.

Mannheim. Synopsis: The local chapter of Association for Jewish History and Literature held a lecture by Professor Franz Oppenheimer (Frankfurt a. M.) on “Anti-Semitism in Light of Sociology.” He began by tracing the roots of hatred of groups, citing Aristotle’s distinction between Greeks and Barbarians. He described how groups formed and excluded other groups through history, then described how craftsmen joined into Christian guilds and excluded Jews. The practice of having restricted sections of cities started as a privilege for merchants, but developed into the “ghetto.” The role of merchant, especially one conducting foreign trade, was revolutionary. Jews were well represented in the ranks of merchants—the rise of capitalism coincided with the rise of nationalist anti-Semitism. Professor Oppenheimer concludes that anti-Semitism will only end with the introduction of a new social order and the demise of capitalism.

Rybnik, Upper Silesia. Synopsis: The congregations of Rybnik and Loslau will hold a memorial for members who died in the war.

Press Roundup.

Berlin. Synopsis: An article in the “National Newspaper” by former Secretary of State August Müller writes that Germany’s anti-Semitism is interfering with reconstruction and foreign trade. Germany has to rebuild its foreign trade, especially with America and Russia, where Germany is competing with America and England. England wants to trade throughout Eastern Europe as does America. In Eastern Europe, foreign trade is almost exclusively in the hands of Jews. Even in America, Jews play an important role in foreign trade. Jewish shopkeepers have always preferred to get their goods from Germany as do the Eastern Jews. With German goods and German merchants you now get anti-Semitism. Most American Jews come from Eastern Europe—why shouldn’t they prefer to trade with England and its colonies? The English and American wares are as good as German wares. The English and American merchants are as honest and credit-worthy as the German ones. The only difference is that these aren’t anti-Semitic.

Berlin. Synopsis: Paul Goldmann, Master glazier, writes about the growing friction between Jewish and Christian craftsmen. Goldmann encourages Jewish crafts- and tradesmen to attend their union meetings an speak out against anti-Semitic statements or actions.

New York.Synopsis: 120 American personalities have published a statement in which they condemn anti-Semitism. Among the signers are the former President Wilson, members of the Cabinet, and the most well-known Catholic and Protestant clergymen. Anti-Semitism cannot be reconciled with one of the foundational tenets of the American way of life—tolerance. Only one newspaper or journal prints anti-Semitic material in America, that is Henry Ford’s weekly “Dearborn Independent.”

Local Events.

Representatives Assembly.

Synopsis: Board elections were held. Congregation taxes discussed as well as the cleanliness of the bathing facilities. The proposal to raise the contribution to the vocational school from 2,000 Marks to 10,000 Marks was debated. Although many are in principle against the idea of confessional schools, the Jewish vocational school has a hundred-year history and it is essential to the newly arrived Eastern Jews. One faction wanted to work with the state to convert the school into a state-run school. After more debate on the subject of confessional schools, the proposal was accepted. The proposal to contribute 2,000 Marks to ensure kosher meals for the voters on the Upper-Silesian referendum was accepted because everything should be done to keep Upper Silesia German. Mr. M. Hes from Schlüchtern was chosen to be the assistant cantor for the Old Synagogue.
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p. 4

Soup kitchen.

Synopsis: Private citizens are working to open a much needed soup kitchen.

A few days ago bookdealer, Hugo Jacobsohn, passed away. He was a founder and board member of the liberal association of the synagogue congregations in Breslau and made important contributions to the cause of Liberalism.

Concerts.

Mozart Matinee by the united organizations of loyal Upper Silesians.
Synopsis: Werner Sander, a young musician from Breslau, conducted the overture and arias from Figaro, “Eine kleine Nachtmusik.” Soloists were Else Knepel and Carl Rudow. Else Knepel’s accompanist was Kurt Nellhaus.

Associations and Assemblies.

Synopsis: The Youth League of the Central Organization re-started its activities with a lecture by Chief Rabbi Vogelstein on “The Aims and Ways of German Jewry” where he emphasized the synthesis of German and Jewish identity. Rabbi Simonsohn then spoke on the “Duties of the Youth,” among which are a thorough knowledge of Jewish religious truths. The deepening of this knowledge will serve as a foundation from which to launch a successful attack on anti-Semitism.

Family Announcements.

Engaged. Käte Lewy, Breslay with Berth. Heinz Flieβer, Berlin; Martha Kassel, Ratibor, Upper Silesia, with Alfred Werner, Katscher, Upper Silesia; Martha Glaser, Breslau, with Arnold Schlesinger, Beuthen, Upper Silesia, Lucie Tworoger with Dr. Hermann Roltonski, Breslau.
Married. Alfred Stern with Lorle Besser, Breslau;¬ Hans Kirschstein with Linka Friedeberger, Breslau; Erich Freudenthal with Rose Neustadt, Charlottenburg; Leo Grünpeter with Anni Freund, Berlin.
Born. Son. Hermann and Frieda Seeligmann, Breslau; Siegbert Benjamin and Else, nee Suβmann, Breslau; Emil Goldstein and Elsa, nee Schindler, Breslau; Chief Rabbi Dr. Adolf Kober and Hanna, nee Samoje, Cologne.
Daughter. Fabian Mielzynski and Hede, nee Braun, Kempen; Alfred Schachmann and Lotte, nee Schiftan, Breslau; Josef and Friedl Freiwald; Alfred Freund and Hilde, nee Kochmann, Rosenberg, Upper Silesia.

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, February 11, 1921

The Eastern Jewish Question.

by Chief Rabbi Felix Goldmann (Leipzig).
From the days that it seemed useful in the Russian state’s wisdom to massacre masses of Jews, from the days of the first pogroms, there has existed for Germany an Eastern Jewish question. Depending on the strength of the hatred in the East, the press of Jews was felt more weakly or strongly. Since Germany was the natural refuge for those persecuted on the other side of the border, and since on the other hand this passage often was the passage to a new world, the emigration from the east and the issues caused by it never stopped. The war added a new angle. As long as one was able to believe in Germany’s victory, one assumed that the Reich would spread towards the east, and this expansion would have made hosts of Jews into German citizens. A lot of paper has been used to describe the associated benefits and harm; many hoped and many worried, and thus the question of Eastern Jews became the favorite topic of Jewish and non-Jewish discussions.

“Peace” came; our fatherland lay on the ground, bleeding from a thousand wounds and the Jewish question took on a worrisome perspective. What was until now regarded as a political event, since the handful of Eastern Jews were as nothing to the strong, economically secure Reich has now become an economic danger after the number of unemployed Germans has swollen and the lack of housing and food are wreaking havoc. And the more pressure there is on the masses of Jews to leave their country under the force of Polish hatred, the less they can find accommodation near the borders, the greater the hatred against the eastern emigrants grows in Germany’s interior. The common attempt to make the Jews the scapegoat for all the evils of the war and the peace grows to such an extent that the Eastern Jewish questions seems to have become the focal point around which the whole of the internal politics revolves.

It’s all the more difficult to make an objective judgment, the more the question becomes embroiled in everyday politics and then combine with a thousand other things. Precisely we Jews, who feel both the patriotic and the religious sympathies, should take a position based on thorough and calm exploration of the facts. Above all, our judgment and our actions can in no way be influenced by the anti-Semitic clamor.

When we look closely into the matter, we see that there is a great misconception about the intentions of the Eastern Jews. Even in peacetime, few had the desire to settle in Germany permanently in contrast to the number of emigrants. Now that the economic opportunities in Germany have decreased greatly, the majority of the refugees are only looking for asylum and temporary protection as they make their way to America. Whoever is active in the care of refugees, knows this. He also knows of course that the United States is making it more and more difficult to immigrate, even to the point of threatening a complete ban on immigration. An essential responsibility of German Jews is to awaken the consciences and brotherly love of their North-American co-religionists so that they, members of today’s strongest economic power, prove their readiness to help the Eastern Jews not only through tawdry enthusiasm for Palestine and a few alms along the way, but also by working toward the right to immigrate for all who are being forced out of the East.

The Jewish judgment must secondly be beyond all anti-Semitic calumny. One must always keep in mind that the enemy of the Jews will not distinguish between German and Eastern Jews, and the agitation against the latter is just a means to undermine the respect and position of the second. That is true above all of those which he sees as politically clever and can bring over to the side of the enemy and thus cause confusion in our ranks. They only hurt themselves because as soon as the anti-Semite succeeds in striking a blow against the Eastern Jews, he will turn towards the German Jews. To adopt his argumentation is like sawing off the branch on which one sits.

That of course doesn’t mean that we should overlook things that are obvious out of defiance or caution. Neither will be forget that Germany simply can’t take in immigrants because any settlement makes the living condition of the inhabitants harder, nor may we overlook the Eastern Jews’ different ways that slow down a smooth integration into German life. Are they worse?—only the dogmatic anti-Semite can determine that with any confidence. In any case, they are different, have different customs and attitudes, which would not matter in times of calm and economic security as with the culturally assimilated Eastern Jews who have lived here for years. But during today’s unsettled, nervous phase this difference leads to constant clashes.

Our position easily becomes clear. As long as it concerns Jews who have settled here before the war or came here with the German government’s permission during the war, there is no Jewish question. If it were not for the reactionary anti-Semitism these Jews would have long been naturalized; and just because earlier governments treated them worse than Christian foreigners who are German citizens today does not mean that we can let them suffer again now. Ne bis in idem. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ne_bis_in_idem It cannot be right that in a lawful state one first lures people to Germany with promises or threats, exploit their labor, and then expel them as burdensome foreigners. From both a German and a Jewish perspective it is our duty to energetically confront any misdeeds committed against these categories [of persons]. Not just because they would harm our co-religionists, but because such deception would be a shameful mark on the German name. That naturally no finger will be lifted for those that have in any way broken the law goes without saying but should nevertheless be highlighted here. When these have to leave the country, no regret or empathy follows them.

Given current conditions we certainly must see the closing of the borders against new immigration and settlement as a hard albeit necessary ruling. But we cannot be satisfied with any ruling that disadvantages Jews specifically. We must frankly admit that regarding this we are in a difficult situation. Since Jews do make up the majority of the immigrants it is all too easy to see an anti-Semitic impulse behind a generally applicable rule. We are highly aware that our fatherland truly is not able to accept immigrants, thus we will be understanding about rulings preventing new permanent settlement in Germany.

Naturally, none of this pertains to the right of asylum. Since one grants this to the many Baltic barons, Jews too may claim it. If we are to oppose mass immigration in the interest of German strength, so too must we act in the interest of German honor so that the political refugee – and who would be that more than an Eastern Jew saving themselves from pogroms?—is granted temporary residence and legal protection. The facts make clear that foreigners of Christian faith largely enjoy these rights. And when one complains that the lack of apartments in Berlin is increased due to the Eastern Jews, one should not forget the hospitality that the expelled Estonians and Kurlanders continuously enjoy in large numbers. It must surely be the responsibility of German Jews to ensure that the Eastern Jews moving through Germany are brought as quickly as possible to the place they are emigrating to. It is just as important, however, to protect them during their stay from any treatment that other foreigners are not subjected to. Regretfully we realize that in Germany anti-Semitism’s boldness lets loose on defenseless Jewish refugees through petty exception-rulings and chicanery. And this consequence of the Jewish question is indeed capable of seriously damaging Germany’s position as a cultured nation.

We need not go into the charity aspects of the Eastern Jewish question here. That German Jews must dedicate themselves to caring for the physical and spiritual needs of their travelling brothers is understood that those who have been so tested by fate still have their lives and their strength. It is shameful that only we Jews take on this responsibility when caring for those that have been persecuted for their religion should be seen as the duty of every feeling, cultured person. The fact that this duty is not being filled by anyone else may not be taken as an excuse to withdraw from it. And if one or the other fears that by supporting these “foreigners” one draws criticism for not being German enough, then we should with good conscience reject a “German-ness” that manifests itself in cold lack of charity and hard-hearted smallness of mind.

If we want to condense our political position regarding the Eastern Jewish questions into a short formula, it would be: Equal rights for all immigrants during admission and processing! If it could be achieved that a Jew is viewed exactly the same as a Czechoslovakian, the problem would be solved. If we had this guarantee of equal and objective treatment, we wouldn’t need to turn to government regulations, we would be assured that the Eastern Jewish question is not ruled by untamed anti-Semitism, but rather based on consideration of real political necessities that we must abide by. With that we conclude with the question of the actual scope of the immigration.

This will surprise us a bit. If one subtracts the Jews who were brought here by the German government before the war, we are left with a few thousand. One estimates that the entire number of refugees who came here during the revolutions is at most 30,000 for the entire country. What significance can this number have compared to the German population of 65 million? It can be calmly stated that, with the exception of the trade centers of Berlin and Leipzig, the only Eastern Jewish question is one conjured by the dictatorship of the anti-Semitic slogan. To liberate oneself from that would be of great benefit to the Christian part of the population as well, so that they can see that an economic or political threat from Eastern Jews only exists in the imagination of those who claim to see ghosts.
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p. 2.

Politics and Religion.

by Hermann Becker, Berlin
Synopsis: This article is a response to the article, “Jews Among Nationalities,” published in the “Ost und West” journal in which the author describes the position of Jews in the new nations created in the wake of World War I—Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. Hermann disagrees with the thesis that protection of the weak and justice are guidelines that Jews should follow when defining their role in these new nations. Becker considers each new nation in turn and analyzes how the nationalities that constitute these new states have Jews and juxtaposes this historical treatment with current trends. For example, Hungary was previously one area where Jews had enjoyed equal rights but are now relentlessly persecuted. He concludes that Yugoslavia is the only new country where there was a history of tolerance and now the Jews enjoy the state’s protection. He concludes that the relationship of Jews to the politics of their country cannot be defined by a single set of guidelines, and certainly not one derived from the dogmatic aspects of the Jewish religion.

From Ludwig Geiger’s youthful and elderly days.

A memorial to the 9th of February.
Synopsis: Ludwig Geiger, Abraham Geiger’s son, died on February 9, 1919 at the age of 70 and is mourned by the entire German Jewry. The article surveys his life from his childhood, the early loss of his mother to his student days and his decision to abandon the study of theology for that of literature and philosophy. Ludwig went on to become a celebrated Goethe scholar. Although he did not follow in his father’s footsteps, he remained involved with the Jewish community of Berlin, especially with educational matters.
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p. 3.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. Synopsis: Jewish congregations’ taxes. Rumors that the taxes will increase by 60% are not true. The actual increase will be a small percentage of that.

Berlin. Partial translation: Reichstag representatives Dr. Schücking and Dr. Steiger spoke about “the political parties and their position on the Jewish question” at a meeting of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith. Schücking reported on the democratic party, Steiger on the centrist Christian Volk party. Schücking pointed out that the pre-war diplomacy gave the anti-Semites a reason to hold Jews responsible, just as blind insanity did in medieval times. Today, the Democrats are seen as being in the service of Jews even though “democracy is a specifically Germanic idea.” Democracy recognizes the civic rights of Jews, and that Jews have contributed to raising the level of the economic and cultural life for all. Of course, it would be desirable that Germany would be spared the flood coming from Eastern Europe and the League of Nations should see to channeling it to countries that can absorb it. Now is the time for unity and not class hatred or religious hatred. Energetic applause followed.

Steiger began his speech with a reminder that the founder of the centrist party, Windthorst, was against any laws that discriminated against groups. Certainly, the German nationalists want to do away with the Old Testament in Germany. If that were the case, all religious teaching would come to an end. Energetic applause broke out here. The dependence of the New Testament on the Old should be the bridge that brings citizens together.

Munich. Synopsis: The proceedings for the violent assault on Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld have been dropped because there was no evidence against the assailants, although it was determined that the attack had been planned.

Osterode. Synopsis: A well-publicized assembly was sponsored by the local German völkisch group at which Dr. Veit spoke on the “psychology of Judaism.” He reviewed Roman and Greek writings on Jews, repeating what is well known from anti-Semitic writings and is not even worth refuting here. The speaker poisoned the crowd. Mr. Bax, general secretary of the German farmers’ union accused the speaker of politicking for the German nationalists and using Jews as a lightning rod—the crowd shouted him down. The preacher, Mannheim, could make himself heard as he defended the morality of Jews, their messianism, and the passages from the Talmud that Veit had misappropriated. Mannheim offered Veit 10,000 Marks if he could point to one of the passages he had “quoted.” The crowd prevented Veit from continuing his speech.

Dessau. Synopsis: Union of the State of Anhalt’s Jewish Congregations. The organization was founded on January 9 by the congregations in Dessau, Bernburg, Cöthen, Zerbst, Sandersleben, Ballenstedt, Coswig, Gröbzig, and Jeβnitz. The union agreed to be a strictly democratic organization with both men and women having equal voting rights. Dr. Cohn (Dessau) is president.

Frankfurt a. M. Synopsis: The Prospects for Theologians. At a lecture series held by the Academic and State Employment Affairs offices, three theologians of different confessions spoke about their careers. Rabbi Dr. Horovitz represented Judaism. The three agreed that since the losses inflicted by the war, the prospects in their career were good, though it could not be considered a normal career because of the requirement for religiosity and vocation. It was not a career for getting rich, especially for rabbis as they are not subsidized by the state.

From the Province.

Tarnowitz. Synopsis: Businessman Elias Bach has been elected president of the local synagogue and Aron Perlberg and Fedor Schweiger as alternates.

Schreiberhau. Synopsis: The anti-Semitic post secretary, Obst, has been transferred by decree as of April 1.

The Association of Former Residents of Posen

List of members

Emanuel Wertheimer und sein “Buch der Weisheit”.

(Verlag Hoffmann & Campe.)
Synopsis: A review of Wertheimer’s book of aphorisms includes a sampling of his darkly pessimistic and satirical observations.
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p. 4.

Local Events.

Representatives’ Assembly.

The next meeting will cover the election of a new cantor for the Old Synagogue, release of the cantors from their ritual duties, raising burial fees in the Cosel cemetery, increasing the contribution to the vocational school from 2,000 Marks to 10,000 Marks, and a pledge of 2000 Marks for kosher meals for the Upper-Silesian voters.

The Old Synagogue in Glogau.

The celebration of the seventh Adar will take place on the February 15 at 4 o’clock.

Art of the Eastern Jews.

The lecturer, Professor Grotte writes: After my opening lecture at the Jewish Continuing Education School, I was asked if I would publish my lecture. Allow me to point to some of my published writings, which include many illustrations:
“Synagogentypen vom 11. Bis 19. Jahrhundert,” Der Zirkel, Berlin, 1915. Three articles in art and architecture journals. A publication on figural Jewish art is underway.

Family Notices.

Engaged: Miss Elly Heydemann, Breslau, with Mr. Max Laske, Berlin; Miss Grete Freund with Mr. Leopold Krämer, Beuthen, Upper-Silesia.
Married: Mr. Herbert Fuchs with Miss Margarete Tichauer, Breslau; Mr. Siegbert Rosenbund with Miss Hanna Hiller, Breslau; Mr. Hans Silberstein with Miss Margot Rosenthal, Breslau; Mr. Alfred Hirschberg with Miss Käte Israelowitz, Breslau.
Born: Son: Dr. Leopold Moses and Margot nee Peritz, Berlin; Mr. Philipp Gutmann and Margot nee Kober, Hamburg; Mr. Otto Bial and Marta nee Weiβler, Breslau; Attorney Joseph Hirschberg and Else nee Baumgart, Frankfurt a. O.; Mr. Paul Cohn and Trude nee Reichmann, Reichenbach, Silesia.
Daughter: Mr. Adolf Strumpfner and Margot nee Fleischer, Hindenburg.
Died: Leopold Goldstein, Breslau; Hirsch Gotthilf, Breslau; Adolf Schäffer, Upper-Glogau; Claudia Eckersdorff nee Mühsam, Breslau; Julian Jacobowitz, Gleiwitz; Hugo Kohn, Rimlau; Louis Wulff, Breslau; Ida Gutzmann nee Heil, Breslau; Else Meseritzer nee Honigbaum, Breslau.

Think of Upper-Silesia on all occasions!

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Jewish-Liberal Newspaper, February 4, 1921

The Central Organization of German Jewry.

by Heinrich Stern, Attorney (Berlin) and Chairman of the German Liberal Jewry Association.
Synopsis: Stern describes the historical significance of German Jewish congregations having come together despite their divisions to ratify this new organization’s constitution and bylaws which are grounded in democratic principles with both genders having equal voting rights. Stern ascribes this victory over aristocratic and plutocratic thinking to the influence of liberal Judaism which now has the responsibility to support this new organization.

Difference and Commonality in Orthodoxy and Liberalism.

by Rabbi Dr. Fuchs (Chemnitz), Part II.
Synopsis: The first part of the article (published in the January 28, 1921 issueJanuary 28, 1921 issue) focused on orthodoxy; the second describes liberalism. The importance of the connection to the religion of the forefathers is a given for liberal Jews. However, the main principle is remaining true to one’s conscience, which is identical to the love of God and the desire for the ideal, and not following the laws of the Torah, the Talmud, and subsequent rabbinical teachings. More important are the prophets and the living feeling for God (Daath Adonoi). Both the orthodox and the liberals believe in the religious obligation of the community to develop their members into worthy individuals. Both also believe that the Jewish religion is the true religion which holds validity for all people and will be accepted by all people so that it can transform them into a heavenly kingdom of morality and peace. Rabbi Fuchs then goes on to claim that liberal Judaism is the better form of Judaism. The present cannot tie itself up with the orthodox religious observations. Liberal Judaism is the better Judaism because it does not need dogma, rather it is based on understanding. It has freed itself from the debris of the middle ages, from belief in spirits and angels. One must not believe the critics that claim that liberalism is the path to agnosticism, or even to baptism. It is simply another type of piety that is all the more difficult to recognize because it is internal.
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p. 2.

The Central Aid Committee’s Conference.

By our special reporter in Berlin, H. B.
We reported on the first part of the conference in the previous issue [January 28, 1921] which continued with Mrs. Wronsky reporting on the “Current Demands on Jewish Aid Work” which she sees as consisting of three things: The actualization of the idea of justice, the idea of love, and the idea of humility. The presenter recommends a complete reworking of the methods of Jewish charity to more development-and goal-oriented work.

Dr. Georg Baum, attorney and incoming chairman, followed with a talk on “Jewish Social Policy,” according to which Jews need special aid organizations that consider their special relationship to their religion and to their professions. Jewish social policy has the following duties: Redistribution of professions especially with respect to academics but also in part to business into lower-level administrative jobs, the trades, and agriculture. In particular he described the situation of Jewish employees who suffer from the anti-Semitism of certain associations. Other duties are Jewish student aid, employment documents for Jews, especially for those whose proof of work needs special attention such as pensioners with limited income, combatants, and wounded veterans. A very important point that the presenter made was that the job counseling services of the Central Aid Committee are overwhelmed. The speaker them moved to population policy which is fostered by the previously mentioned services as well as providing for dowries, furniture, and apartments. During the ensuing debate, Mrs. Ollendorff (Breslau) pointed out that the congregations would no longer be in a position to provide the same level of voluntary contributions. Emil Waldstein (Breslau) warned against splintering available resources, which is especially important for those Jewish institutions with such small numbers of residents which makes them difficult to support. He recommends that foundations that provide for dowries and those job counseling services that provide not only advice but also the resources to pursue recommended careers receive continued support. Next Mr. Waldstein himself reported on “The Plight of our Orphanages and Educational Institutions.” These institutions are in the same pre-ware condition in terms of funds, income and operations which puts their work in the current situation at risk. Considering this the homes must be run more economically by tightest rationing of food and clothing in keeping with the homes’ goals, better utilization of the houses, facilities and administration, and leveraging the assistance of congregations and civic officials. The plight of the institutions requires each of them to fight against their fate and supports consolidating many of these institutions.

Dr. Fritz Lamm, Attorney (Berlin), then reported on “The Tasks of Jewish Children’s Welfare” which covers aid for the children that need charity because of health, parental, or legal reasons. To this group belongs youth who don’t have an orderly family life, that is, orphans, those born out of wedlock, abandoned children and those that are morally endangered, neglected, or juvenile delinquents, and finally children from needy families. The youth should be taken care of within the congregations with the agreement of public child welfare services. The influence of the Central Aid Committee on the upcoming child welfare laws will ensure that the religious needs of Jewish children are considered. Funds should be raised by requests to the state, community and charitable organizations, by turning to the living and for the sake of the dead, finally through collections “For the Jewish Child” which will take place once the collections for the German children’s welfare are finished.

On the second day of the aid conference Dr. Hanauer, privy counselor (Frankfurt a. M.), spoke about the “Health Objectives of Jewish Welfare Work.” His theses were that German Jewry is threatened by degenerative trends caused by 1) the decreasing birth rate and 2) widespread nervous and mental illnesses. Measures against these are 1) marriage reform (countering lack of marriage, late marriages, marriage with less desirable spouses, mixed marriages instead of which early marriage should be endorsed as well as well-organized, communal marriage agencies. 2) Welfare support for families with many children, 3) development of children’s protection laws that better care for orphans and children born outside of marriage as well as guardianship and foster-parenting. As for the nervous and mental diseases: Raising children with simplicity and to be undemanding, and physically strengthening them through gymnastics and sport; redistributing professions by leading them toward trades and gardening, as well as developing support for restorative care.

Co-presenters were Professor Dr. Toby Cohn (Berlin) who spoke on the “Care of the Mentally Ill,” Dr. Wilhelm Feilchenfeld (Berlin) on the “Care of Patients with Lung Diseases,” and Dr. Nawratzki, (Berlin-Niklassee): on the “Care of the Mentally Underdeveloped Youth.”

In the ensuing debate the speech by Dr. Eschelbacher (Düsseldorf) especially made an impression for he described in fresh and lively manner his own experiences in the areas of social policy and met with hearty applause.

Dr. Friedrich Ollendorff (Berlin) spoke about “Jewish Foreign Aid.” There is only one area in need and that is Eastern Europe. Care for its emigrants is raising the visibility of the generosity of Jews internationally.

Dr. Klee, Attorney (Berlin) reported on his participation as a delegate of the Zionist union at the Karlsbad World Aid Conference and its significance for Jewish social work where the aid organizations from 28 nations were represented. Pure philanthropy was rejected; instead lasting development work was decided upon.

The last report was held by Mr. Fritz, a businessman (Berlin), on the “Problems of Caring for Eastern Jews in Germany,” which is in particular impacted by the regulations concerning inner-German migration and finding employment. Jewish job placement services have been able to accommodate circa 17,000 Eastern Jewish refugees in mines and other industries. The presenter reported that the German labor unions regularly and zealously protect their Jewish comrades from anti-Semitic chicanery.

Dr. Baum closed the two-day proceedings by thanking the participants and hoping that the work of the German Jewry would be a blessing. He reported that they had been invited to Frankfurt a. M. for the next conference.

What made this conference an unforgettable one for all participants was the uplifting realization that the German Jewry has so many members involved in the service of charity, especially its women and girls of all classes, indeed more than any other religious community. In Judaism, one feels that an individual’s sorrow is the sorrow of all. Despite the heavy plight of these times the generosity of Jews has not let up, and it will never end, just as the optimism that recognizes that where there’s a will, there’s a way.

Aus dem Reich.

Berlin. The central committee of the Reichstag recently debated questions of emigration and immigration, specifically the proposal by the minister of the interior to house Jewish imigrants in concentration camps [“Konzentrationslager”]. The Reichsminister, Dr. Koch, detailed his perspective as follows: There is no occasion for giving preferential treatment to any foreigners. This is not about anti-Semitism, rather it is about the equal treatment of all foreigners. Exceptional measures that give an advantage to Eastern Jews cannot be maintained because the emigration of German workers has taken on such worrisome dimensions. Every immigrant from the east means that in the west a well-qualified German worker will emigrate—the Minister [of the Interior] will not abide that. The Berlin housing office has expressed its opposition to the immigration of Eastern Jews to the Minister and namely complained that the Berlin proletariat “cannot find an apartment because these have been taken from them by Eastern Jews.” Additionally, the state employment offices have complained that the Eastern Jewish immigrants take jobs away from German workers. The Minister is not in a position to change the measures that had been taken.

The president of the Reich migration office, Jung, expanded: “With respect to the undesired immigration, what makes the matter more difficult is that the immigrants try to cross the German border without passports or with counterfeit ones. As long as it is possible to cross over Upper Silesia, these difficulties will not disappear. In any case the government is doing everything it can to execute on the will of the Reichstag—to build a strong dam against this flood of immigration.”

Representative Hoch (Socialist) explained that it is a given that one must act energetically in order to deal with the immigration of Eastern Jews. However, one must take care not to exaggerate on behalf of one side or the other.

Berlin. Synopsis: The “Deutsche Zeitung” writes positively of the founding of the Central Organization at the assembly of German-Israelite congregations. It is always suspicious when a publication like the “Deutsche Zeitung,” which is always sharply critical of us Jews, welcomes an event in our ranks. We liberals must guard against this organization serving a nationalist [“völkisch”] agenda.

Wandering through Belgium

Excerpts from my travel journal (1910). [poems by Ludwig Davidsohn which will not be translated at this time.]
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p. 3.
Königsberg. Partial translation: At a meeting of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith Professor Goldstein (Darmstadt) spoke on “Modern Theory of Race” from a purely sociological perspective. Gobineau’s work on race spawned a European discussion where the concept of “race” quickly became bound to the concept of “nation.” St. Chamberlain built on Gobineau’s theory as follows: Nation equals race; Jews belong to a different race than the Germans, therefore they have no native rights within German culture. This theory distinguishes between the valuable culturally-creative Germanic race from the supposedly unworthy, sterile, intellectually infertile race of the Jews. To ground these theories, it is further maintained that Jesus, Confucius, and Lao Tzu had Germanic blood flowing in their veins. The conclusion is that the emancipation of Jews, that is, their enjoyment of equal rights, should be repealed because of their non-western race…

Goldstein asks what is then “race”? He cites Ehrenreich’s definition of race as a concept from natural sciences while “das Volk” is a cultural concept. There is an English or German people, but no English or German race. There are no peoples with a pure race in today’s Europe.

“One is only German by blood.” During the war this saying was disproved since the cruelest defamers of Germans had German blood. German is a particular sensibility. “Racial foreigners” have often achieved amazing things for the state. Gambetta was not of French blood; the Englishman Disraeli was a Jew, as was Marx; Stahl, actually Schlesinger, the founder of the Conservative Party was a Jew as was Lasker, the leader of the national-liberals; Cavour was a Frenchman, the Irish leader Parnell an Englishman and a Protestant at that; Prince Eugene was a Savoyard. The Swedish poet Belmann came from Bremen, Ibsen from Denmark, Chamisso, Alexis, Geibel, Fontane were half French; Görres came from Italy, Clausewitz from Poland, likewise Treitschke. Dürer was a Magyar, etc…

From the Province.

Ratibor. Synopsis: A committee has formed here to advise and aid Jewish voters coming to Ratibor. The committee plans to help with housing and to set up a kosher dining facility.
Görlitz. Synopsis: Paul Mühsam held a poetry reading sponsored by the Workgroup of Jewish Communities. He read as yet unpublished poems, “Evening Silence,” “Hope,” and “May.” He also read a chapter (“God and the Butterfly”) from his well-known prose work, “Conversations with God.” The article describes the reading in great detail.

To All Former Residents of Posen!

Synopsis: The emigration from Posen is compared to Abraham’s leaving his homeland. But Abraham didn’t need a passport or a visa, could take his tents with him and did not have to struggle for his daily bread as the immigrants from Posen have to. This article is an invitation to all former residents of Posen to join to form a group for mutual support.

Local Events.

The Völkisch Index of Businesses.

Synopsis: More names of businesses who want to distance themselves from the Protection and Defiance Federation are listed.

The Art of Eastern Jews.

Lecture (with projections) by Professor Grotte,
held at the semester start of Jewish Adult Continuing Education.
Synopsis: The review begins with the statement that Professor Grotte “took us into completely new territory” with his lecture and slide show on Eastern Jewish art, namely from Galicia and Russian-Polish areas. His slides revealed a “strange, entirely new art that speaks to one’s heart.” The named artists Professor Grotte included were the architect, Benjamin Hillel and Elieser ben Sussmann, whose artistry covered the walls of synagogues.


For more examples of Sussmann’s work, follow these links:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/herb_st85/5144240262/ http://www.worksheets.de/html/scheunensynagoge_bechhofen.html
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p. 4.

Concerts.

An Evening of Piano Music by Fritz Peiser.

Synopsis: At his first public concert, Fritz Peiser played Chopin so well that the reviewer thought he showed great promise as an interpreter of Chopin’s work.

Dora Bernstein’s, Terese Petzko-Schubert’s Concert.

Synopsis: Dora Bernstein, soprano, was accompanied by Terese Petzko-Schubert on the violin and Arpad Sandor on the piano.

Associations and Assemblies.

Synopsis: The Jewish-Liberal Youth Organization had its annual general assembly on January 31. The members of the board were re-elected: Erich Bayer, Kurt Brienitzer, and Attorney Erich Spitz.
The youth league of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith will start up its activities again after its re-organization. On February 9, Rabbi Dr. Vogelstein will speak on the Ends and Means of German Jewry,” and Rabbi Dr. Simonsohn will speak on “The Task before the Youth.”

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The source for these translations is the digitized version of the “Juedisch-Liberale Zeitung” available at Compact Memory. Find the digitized version of Issue 10 here.

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